CYP Core 3.1. Understand child and young person development.
1.2 Explain the difference between sequence of development and rate of development and rate of development and why the difference is important.
Sequence of development: Children generally develop in broadly the same sequence there are exceptions however. Disabled children who have specific needs may develop differently. Also children may be gifted and talented, this is outlined by the government as follows:
Gifted and talented children have the ability to develop significantly ahead of their year group or with the potential to develop those abilities. They may have abilities in one more academic subjects, like maths and English. They may have practical skills in areas like sport, music, design or creative and performing arts. Decision-making and organising are also taken into account. All schools wil have a leading teacher for gifted and talented education.
Practitioners must have a good understanding of the child development rates. They should:
• Carry put assessment and observation effectively. It is required for practitioners to make development comparisons between a child’s actual development stage and expected development rates.
• Offer appropriate activities and experiences. This will be informed by observation and assessment of individual children.
To begin to answer the question of what is the difference between development and rate of development it is vital that we completely understand the meaning of the words. A sequence of development is the order in which the development of t6he child would happen; for example a child will sit before crawling and would then go on to walk. The rate of the development is the speed in which it would ...
• Anticipate the next stage of a child’s development. This allows the practitioner to provide activities and experiences that will challenge interest children, stimulating their learning development.
• Notice when children are not progressing as expected. Although children develop at different rates significant delays in one area or many delays in several area can be an indication that children need intervention and extra support.
2 Understand the factors that influence children and young people’s development and how these affect practice.
2.1 Explain how children and young people’s development is influenced by a range of personal factors.
The factors that influence the development of children fall into two factors, personal and external.
Personal factors. A number of factors are decided genetically including aspects of heath and appearance. Other factors can arise during pregnancy and birth. Infections in the mother can affect the baby’s development. Harm can also be caused by the mother drinking alcohol or taking drugs. Long term effects can occur if the baby is born prematurely. All of these can physical impairments. If there are problems during the birth itself such as lack of oxygen to the baby. This can cause learning difficulties.
Health status is also important. If ill health means that they miss a lot of school then they will miss experiences that contribute to development. There are various causes to health development some are present at birth and some are triggered by external factors like living in a damp house or an area where there is a lot of pollution. Poor diet and poor living conditions can also cause health problems.
2.2 Explain how children and young people’s development is influenced by a range of external factors.
• Poverty and deprivation. Living in poverty is extremely stressful for families. This can affect everyone’s mental health as well as an impact on physical health. Poor quality food and poor housing are particularly common problems. These can lead to a lack of opportunities to play safely impacting on learning experiences. Poverty can also effect a child’s self esteem. This impacts on their social and emotional development in turn the child’s expectations for their own life may be low.
... effects of smoking on the development of a child, and there is speculative study that maternal diet and smoking could be causal factors ... 1981) criticized Bowlby’s theory, and suggested that early experiences cannot be held as direct underlying causes for ... relationships are the basis for young children’s development, predominantly their social and emotional development. Bowlby (1979: 129) states ...
• Family environment and background.
In most homes, children are well cared for by a parent. Many parents respond well to the ‘working in partnership’ approach of settings. This all has a positive effect on development and a child’s life outcomes. This is not the experience of all children. The parents could have problems with drink, drugs, depression or domestic violence that effects the child severely.
• Personal choices. Young people make personal choices about taking risks, having sex, drinking alcohol smoking taking drugs. These can all effect a young person’s development. They may also skip school. They can also make positive choices that impact on development such as applying themselves school.
• Looked after children/care status. Children who are looked after by the local authority or are in care status will be lacking in the emotional support they would have got from a parent of carer. These children and young people may also be experiencing the effects of a family breakdown, youth offending, disability, or unsatisfactory parental care. They may have been moved about for their entire childhood.
• Education. In terms of all sorts of education, the quality of the opportunity is recognised as being of key importance to development. If a child or young person is actively engaged, the positive impact on their development can be considerable, and they are likely to be interested in extra-curricular activities. If a child or young person experiences education opportunities in a negative way negative outcomes are likely to follow. If a young person experiences bullying, they may be frequently anxious and unable to perform.
2.3 Explain how theories of development and frameworks to support development influence current practice.
Traditionally the approaches of theorists have been divided into types. These are three key types of approach to cognitive development:
• Constructivist approach. This focuses on children as active learners. They’re interested in how children learn from their experiences, and how they learn to understand the world around them.
Unit 4 – Engage in Personal Development in Young People’s setting. 1. What is meant by the term ‘reflective practice’, and why is it important in helping to improve the quality of the service provided? The term ‘reflective practice’ means thinking and evaluating your actions so that you are able to improve yours and the schools practices. By reflecting on your actions with the children or other ...
• Behaviourist approach. This focuses on the way children respond in response to the various stimuli and reinforcements. They’re particularly interested in the pattern of responses over time.
• Social learning approach. Social learning theorists focus on how children learn through observation and imitation.
There are three types of theories on cognitive development are as follows:
• Psychoanalytical approach. This focuses on the unconscious mind they’re interested in the unconscious mind, interested in how this develops in childhood and the effect that it has on personality and the way people behave throughout life.
• Humanist approach. This focuses on the basic human needs, and the motivations people have to get their needs met and how this links with personality.
• Attachment theory approach. This focuses on the need of babies and young children to have strong emotional attachments in their lives. They’re interested in how this links to social and emotional development and the on-going effects of having experienced strong low quality attachments.
There are many frameworks to support development. They have brought together a range of theories in a combined modern approach
• Social pedagogy: This is a term used to describe a holistic approach to work. It combines core theories concepts and approaches to from sociology, psychology, education, philosophy medicinal sciences and social work. A core value is that bringing up children is the responsibility to shared by the parents and society as a whole.
• Play theory history. There are many additional theories on play and some fascinating research and experiments underpin them.
Parten’s five stages of play. In 1932 Mildred Parten was studying the play of children. She focused on the children’s interactions during play. She identified five stages:
1. Solidarity play. This is when a child plays on their own completely independent of other children. Very young children only play alone.
2. Spectator play. This is when a child watches a child or children play but does not join in.
3. Parallel play. This stage occurs from approximately two years of age. Children play alongside other and may share but remain engrossed in their activity. They remain independent in their play and do not look at other children.
child development By: gilly boy The Importance of Play in a Child's Development The majority of research done by Cognitive Psychologists dealing with human cognition has revealed it to be related to the human imagination. As evident by the fact that many psychologist view the process of thinking as the forming of mental representations and through the manipulation of these imaginative images we ...
4. Associative play. This stage occurs between the ages of three and four. They may share and talk to each other. They have their own play agenda The children do not coordinate their play objectives or interests. Conflicts arise when children have separate ideas that others do not share.
5. Cooperative play. This stage occurs when children fully interact. They can play imaginary games and work together with specific goals in mind.
The current accepted thinking on play theory is that play provides children the opportunity to interact with both adults and children. This helps children gain the social skills they need to get on with others and become part of a group. They will learn and practice a wide range of skills when they’re playing. These are all long term benefits of play which develop over time. Other long term benefits gained through play include increasing:
• Knowledge and understanding.
• Well-being, health and development.
The short term benefits of play occur at the time a child is playing they include the opportunity to:
• Enjoy freedom.
• Have fun.
• Test boundaries.
• Explore risk.
• Exercise choice.
• Exercise control over their bodies.
• Exercise control over their actions and emotions.
Play acts as a bridge to social skills and relationships young children need to gain skills such as:
• Taking turns.
• Making and maintaining friendships.
• Responding to people in an appropriate way.
Children learn through play. Play is an effective vehicle for children’s learning because;
• Children enjoy playing.
• Children are intrinsically motivated to play.
• Children can make their own discoveries through play.
• Children can initiate their own activities and explore their own thoughts and ideas through paly.
• Children can actively learn through pal.
Play among children is a vital essentiality as it leads to social, cognitive and physical development among them during their childhood development. Therefore play among children is a normal routine that emerges during this period of growth. They get to involve themselves in humorous activities i. e. various games like hide and seek hide, foot ball, computer games, and several others which seem to ...
• Play is necessary for children’s well being.
3 Understand how to monitor children and young people’s development and interventions that should take place if this is not following the expected pattern.
3.1Explain how to monitor children and young peoples development using different methods.
Monitoring and assessing children’s development enables us to notice when a child is not developing at eth expected rate. Checks should be made to see if there are any causes for the delay such as impairment. This enables appropriate support for the child’s development and welfare to be put into place. When practitioners take action like this it is know as intervention.
There are many different types of monitoring and assessment:
• Observation and assessment. They use their observations findings to and their knowledge of the expected rates and sequence of development this is recorded on observation and assessment documents.
• Assessment frameworks. These set out how learning and development should be assessed in relation to curriculum frameworks.
• Standard measurements. The usage of standard measurements include; growth assessment, auditory assessments, cognitive assessments, cognitive aptitude tests and reasoning assessments.
3.2 Explain the reasons why children and young people development may not follow the expected pattern.
The reason that a child may not follow the expected pattern is usually for one of these reasons:
• Disability. This can affect children in many different ways. They may have to spend a lot of time in hospital missing a lot of school. They may not be able to interact with other children as well. They may need extra time to meet their expected development targets.
• Emotional influences. Children need secure loving attachments with key people in their lives in order to thrive emotionally. High levels of self esteem are also important as they effect the children’s participation and levels of engagement with learning activities.
... By preparing young people for this transition, the anxieties created can be reduced and responded to sensitively. Young people can be supported at this ... Personal development lessons look at life skills such as the ability to ask for help and support when necessary. Support is ... they are experiencing. It is equally important that the child is listened to and respected, recognising the uniqueness of ...
• Physical influences. Genetics impacts on children’s development including their physical growth and physical strength.
• Environmental influences. This can affect development, both positively and negatively. These include poverty and education.
• Cultural influences. Cultural beliefs and values influence the way that families bring up children. This can have an impact on social development in terms of independence and confidence. In some cultures education for girls isn’t highly valued, and so girls may not have the same learning opportunities as their peers.
• Social influences. The type of upbringing received by children and young people can influence development. Weather a child has positive role models to learn from and weather a family supports learning and development through helping with homework or simply playing and talking with a child frequently.
• Learning needs. Children and young people with specific learning needs may require range of additional support with certain aspects of their learning and development.
• Communication skills. Difficulties with their communication there can be a wide-ranging impact on their overall development as children grow up, problems can increase, if frustration at not understanding others, or not being able to express themselves continues to build and to affect behaviour.
3.3 Explain how disability may effect development.
See CYP Learning outcome 3.3.
3.4 Explain how different types of interventions can promote positive outcomes for children and young people where development is not following the expected pattern.
A number of professionals may intervene to support children’s development including social workers, speech language and communication therapists. psychologists, psychiatrists. Youth justice services, physiotherapists, nurse specialists, additional support workers and health visitors.
4. Understand the importance of early intervention to support the speech language and communication needs of children and young people.
4.1 Analyse the importance of early identification of speech language and communication delays and disorders and the potential risks of late recognition.
Speech language and communication (SLC) is a fundamental part of children’s communication development, because language helps us think. It’s also key to children social and emotional development as it’s the foundation of their relationships with others, and the primary way which they express themselves. The effects of SLC delays are not just about children being held back with their speaking and listening. The nock on effect of their development as a whole is considerable If they do not receive support they’re at risk of these long term affects developing:
• Not fulfilling potential.
• Not becoming independent.
• Becoming isolated.
• Becoming withdrawn.
• Becoming depressed.
• Anti-social behaviour.
Early identification enables children to get the professional support they need. In some cases support can enable a difficulty to be partly or totally overcome, such as stammers. Or new ways to communicate may be introduced such as makaton.
4.2 Explain how multi-agency teams work together to support the development of speech, language and communication.
The first port of call is usually the GP hearing and visual tests are usually carried out. It’s at this stage the children are referred to an educational psychologist for an assessment. Practitioners will agree how they’ll work together and how the support will be provided.
4.3 Explain how play and activities are used to support the development of speech, language and communication.
We can offer a range of activities that promote SLC development. It’s important that they are play based so the children are motivated participate SLC therapists will often recommend that parents make sharing rhymes and songs part of their every day activities. The list of possible activities is extensive some ideas are listed below:
• Role play, dressing up and the home corner.
• Dolls puppets and soft toys.
• Small world play.
• Books and stories.
• Nursery rhymes and songs.
• Musical instruments.
• Basic playground and circle games.
• Use of toy phones and walkie-talkies.
• Art activities featuring mark making such as painting and colouring.
• Playing side by side in the water tray.
• Interesting object to explore.
• Ball games between two or more players.
5 Understand the potential effects of transitions on children and young people’s development.
5.1 Explain how different types of transitions can affect children and young people’s development.
These are periods of change that generally involve a loss of familiar people.
• Emotional transitions affected by personal experience.. Bereavement, entering/ leaving care.
• Physical transitions. Moving to a new educational establishment. Or a new home.
• Physiological transitions. Puberty or long term medicinal conditions.
• Intellectual transitions. Moving form pre-school to primary school to secondary school.
Practitioners can initiate effective strategies to help children during transitions:
• Communicating with the children about the transition. Listening to the child’s concerns and talking to them about them. It’s important for them to have opportunities to explore how they’re feeling about the transition.
• Arranging visits to a new setting prior to the transition. This may be with a parent depending on a child’s age.
• Any literature or video that deals with the subject of their future transition will help minimise fear of the unknown.
• Allowing plenty of time opportunities for children to express themselves though conversation or imaginative of expressive play
• When smaller children have smaller transitions that may occur in the day it is good to let them know that a transition is occurring ahead of time.
• Giving children and young people opportunities to experience independence better equips them to make transitions.
• Ensuring that all documentation is organised and ready to be passed on to other professionals.
5.2 Evaluate the effect on children and young people of having positive relationships during periods of transition.
Children will feel stressed and anxious during times of transition. It is important for them to have the support of people closest to them. Existing relationships will help children and young people get through by:
• Providing them with security.
• Giving them someone to talk to and express their feelings.
• Understanding that there may be some changes in their behaviour.
• Bolstering their confidence in advance of the transition.
• Providing them with moral support at the actual time of transition.
Forming new relationships during a time of transition will also be hugely beneficial because:
• Fear of being isolated or lonely is often a central concern for children and young people who are transitioning.
• It’s reassuring to feel that they have people they can turn to for help and support in the new situation.
• Once they have a friend some transitions can start to feel fun.
• In the case of practitioners someone will be on hand to help them adjust.