United States History – 1920’s 20s years are unusual and inconsistent time when the hedonism coexisted with Puritan conservatism. It were years of the prohibition. In 1920 the amendment to the Constitution, forbidding sale of alcoholic drinks has been accepted. However drunkards easily bypassed the law in thousand underground bars (speakeasies), and gangsters gained unbelievable amount of money with underground trade of alcoholic drinks. They were roaring 20s, an epoch of jazz and magnificent mute films, time when strange kinds of competitions like sitting on a flagstaff or gold fishes were popular. The racist organization Ku-Klux-Klan which has been established in the south during Civil war has involved in itself new supporters and terrorized black, Catholics, Jews and immigrants. However, it has not prevented the Catholic governor of New York Alfred Smith to represent itself as the candidate from Democratic Party at presidential elections. In 1920 Warren G. Harding has been put forward as the candidate of a party to a post of the president and on March, 4, 1921 Harding have been officially proclaimed as the twenty ninth president of the USA.
He has won elections by the majority in 7 million voices. The first message of the president to the Congress contained the recommendation for return the country to times of a normal life with the help of high tariffs, grants for shipbuilding, immigration restrictions, federal budgetary system and reduction of taxes. Some period of time the success accompanied new administration. The country experienced the period of economic prosperity, and restrictions of military years have been cancelled. The problem of the League of Nations has been almost forgotten. Hardings appeals to return to normal life and policy of freedom of business provided by him were all-out supported. Besides due to efforts of state secretary Hughs the administration has agreed upon reduction of sea arms at the Washington conference. During reign of Harding, under the order of the Minister of Justice Mitchell Palmer round-ups of participants of political meetings were arranged. Some hundreds political radicals of a foreign origin which, as a rule, did not make any crimes have been deported.
Before his nomination, Warren G. Harding declared, 'America's present need is not heroics, but healing; not nostrums, but normalcy; not revolution, but restoration; not agitation, but adjustment; not surgery, but serenity; not the dramatic, but the dispassionate; not experiment, but equipoise; not submergence in internationality, but sustainment in triumphant nationality... .' A Democratic leader, ...
In 1921 on rather doubtful reasons two anarchists of the Italian origin – Nikola Sacco and Bartolomeo Vanzetti have been condemned for murder. Despite of protests of the intelligence, both they have been executed on an electric chair in 1927. In 1921 the congress has entered restrictions on immigration which has been toughened in 1924 and 1929. These restrictions gave advantages to immigrants from the Anglo-Saxon and Scandinavian countries. When immigration processes has turned to a weak streamlet, small but appreciable outflow of Americans to Europe began. Generally writers and the intellectuals shocked by the First World War and disappointed in the United States as in the country where it is possible to create and think freely leaved. They got over mainly to Paris.
The writer and poetess Gertrude Stein, the mistress of the Parisian literary saloon, has named them as “the lost generation”. Among them were writers Ernest Hemingway, who embodied in his novels and stories stages of an emigrant life, and Francis Scott Fitzgerald whose books, first of all “Great Gatsby”, reflected a social pressure and vital collisions, which were characterized for “rough twentieth”. Despite of the general prosperity of the country, agrarian sector of economy experienced serious difficulties. In the Congress the new farmer block began to threaten the influence of republicans. During the process of accumulation of the facts of abusing as a result of the investigation of activity of administration and gangs from Ohio that was carried out by the Congress the atmosphere of doubts, fear and suspicions in Washington was forced. It was found out, that the Minister of Internal Affairs Fall has received a bribe for transfer of oil reserves of navy fleet to private businessmen. The department of the Minister of Justice Doherty was also suspected in corruption.
Calvin Coolidge Calvin Coolidge was the only son of a Vermont storekeeper. He was born in the house at the rear of his father's combined general store and post office in Plymouth Notch. In 1891 he enrolled in Amherst College in Amherst, Massachusetts. His favorite subjects at college were philosophy and speech. Following his graduation from Amherst in 1895, Coolidge studied law in Northampton, ...
Management on affairs of veterans, and a bureau of storage of foreign property was no outside of suspicions. In the summer 1923 information on corruption was still property of the limited circle of persons, but the storm could burst at any moment. The tired, disturbed and disappointed president has gone to trip to Alaska. On his way home Harding had been ill and suddenly died in San Francisco on August, 2 1923. The new president of the USA became Vice-president Kalvin Coolidge. Presidency of Coolidge has fallen to zenith of economic rise of the twentieth years. Soon the new president seemed to many compatriots as a symbol and the guarantor of long prosperity.
With his sights at a healthy condition of the country, at the necessity of economy in the government, at the fertile effectiveness of the great abilities he followed to prevailing then ideas and ideals. In his speech to publishers of newspapers in Washington in January, 1925 he has declared: The main business of American people is a business. Such speech was appropriate to his thinking. The minimal state intervention into the economic life and close informal cooperation of the government and the big business were characteristic attributes of Coolidges time. He laid a way to conservative economic policy of a republican party with much more success, than not distinguished by abilities Harding. In internal policy Coolidge basically continued the program of predecessor Harding. He has recognized himself as the supporter of the further restriction of immigration, preservation of protective duties in interests of the American industry, state regulation of credits for farmers, privatization of shipbuilding.
The president has kept also a structure of whole government, except for the dismissed Minister of Justice Doherty and the Military Minister Wick because of Hardings scandal. After refusal of Coolidge considering participation in elections Herbert Clark Hoover could expose himself as the candidate. Pre-election struggle between him and democrat Alfred E. Smith, the governor of New York and the Catholic did not have enough big questions. Hoover has made the pre-election theme prosperity and has announced for the country the fast end of poverty: “the hen in each saucepan and the car in each garage”. As a result Hoover has won presidential elections on November, 6, 1928 with advantage in 6 million voices and even more convincing advantage at the elective board. In the Congress the republican majority has amplified again. Hoover, sworn on March, 4, 1929, was the first president from the elite of managers of the country, the gifted organizer, the manager and the technocrat. Till autumn of 1929 he had good relations with the society.
The first citizen of a nation can be seen as an individual who is at the head of his institution and also one of his own citizens. It may seem ironic or even impossible that a person can assume such high standing while maintaining the typical image of his fellow men. But with the unique structure of the American Government and the many interesting facets of its President, the American Presidency ...
His political concept first of all provided administrative updating, attempt to operate economy by means of informal interaction of the government and heads of economy. His administration and governmental bodies as it was accepted during “a republican era” consisted of many important industrialists and bankers. Skilled republican politics and diplomat Henry L.Stimson became the Minister of Foreign Affairs. Internal policy of Hoover has been devoted to expansion of national parks and care of woods, improvement of conditions of life of Indians, carrying out of prohibition, reorganization of prisons and coordination of actions of national charitable and social services. Changes in these areas were, but rather modest. In 20s years the economy of the USA generally prospered. At least in the cities, and this was accompanied by extremely conservative policy.
It was based on representation, that if the state will do everything possible for the development of private business well-being of all layers of the population will rise. Operating in such direction, the ruling Republican Party aspired to create the most favorable conditions for industrial manufacture. In 1922 and 1930 the tariff rates have been increased again, guaranteeing to industrialists of the USA monopoly in a home market. Second of these tariff laws, have increased duties on import such high, that more than thousand American economists have directed to the president Hoover the petition with the request to impose the veto on him. The subsequent events have proved their forecasts about reciprocal actions of other countries which had great consequences for the United States. Simultaneously federal government has started reduction of taxes as, in opinion of the Minister of Finance Andrew Mellon, the high surtax will not stimulate capital investment in the new industrial enterprises. In a series of the laws accepted in 1921-1929, the congress in the maximal degree considered his offers to a cancellation or significant reduction of rates of surtax and the tax to super profit, that has remained from the wartime. In 20s years private business received essential help from the state, including indirect help like credits for the civil engineering firms, favorable contracts on transportation of cargoes in containers. The law on transport of 1920 has returned in private use railways that were under the strict governmental control during war. In 1917-1920 the merchant marine fleet was owned by the state.
Explain how far the views in Source B differ from those in Source A in relation to President Eisenhower and the desegregation of education. Both sources illustrate Eisenhower’s negative opinion on desegregation in schools. Both criticise and portray Eisenhower’s intolerance of black people as Source states Eisenhower’s comment that white people ‘ are concerned about is that their sweet little ...
In 20s it also have been sold out to private owners. However behind external prosperity the great problems existed. At high profits and low interest rates investment resources were huge. The significant part of investments went in impetuous gamble in the share markets. Mad buyers appointed prices considerably exceeded the real cost of shares on auctions. Investors bought shares for 90 percent in a duty. Explosion has burst in 1929 when the Share market has failed. It was the beginning of the economic crisis which has captured the whole world. 20s years were gold years for big business. The United States have turned to a consumer society.
Demand for radio receivers, domestic electro devices, the goods from synthetic fabrics and plastic grew roughly. One of the most popular people of that time was Henry Ford who has applied conveyor manufacture at his automobile factories for the first time. Ford could pay worker high salary and at the same time receive huge profit due to a serial production of well-known car “Model – T” which could be bought by millions of Americans for themselves. During some moments it seemed, that Americans have received wonderful ability, to transform everything that they touch into gold. If to examine the culture of the USA of this period, in opinion of the American and foreign critics, in the culture of the United States the cult of material assets was ratified simultaneously together with Puritan hypocrisy. A symbol of the last became an interdiction of manufacture and sale of alcoholic drinks to which almost centenary period of anti-alcoholic campaign preceded. This interdiction has been made out in 1919 as eighteenth amendment to the constitution. The prohibition has been accepted for the termination of trade of alcoholic drinks. But instead of it thousand secret brothels with alcoholic drinks have appeared, and its illegal manufacturers and sellers made criminal, but profitable business. Everywhere broken interdiction looked continuous hypocrisy, and many Americans compared it with the covered external decency political corruption, so characteristic for the period of Hardings presidency. The ruthless criticism of public foundations became a dominating theme of the American literature.
When exploring African-American history, the most important things to focus on are that because of the times, black people were enslaved and treated poorly. They endured it all and worked hard to rise above the boundaries of slavery and prejudice. However, the most portentous aspect of African-American history is that it's heritage; it's history; and it's over. Jane Minor was born as Gensey Snow ...
Huge popularity was got by the journalist and critic Henry A. Menken. He was the unsurpassed unmasker of all false and selling in the American life. Any writer did not involve in 20s years wider audience, than Sinclair Lewis with his satire on middle layers. His novels “The Main street” and “Babbit” became symbols of national consciousness. On a twist of fate, Americans criticized The United States during its greatest well-being.
Jack Rudman: United States History and Government, National Learning Corporation, 1994; Martin L.
Fausold: The Presidency of Herbert C. Hoover, University Press of Kansas, 1994; Anne Canadeo, Richard G. Young: Warren G. Harding: 29th President of the United States, Garrett Educational Corporation, 1990; Michael Geoffrey, Allen Geoffrey: Calvin Coolidge, Enslow Publishers, Incorporated, 2002; Stephen Feinstein: The 1920s from Prohibition to Charles Lindbergh, Enslow Publishers, Incorporated, 2002; Christine Gibson: Henry Fords Revolution for the Worker, American Heritage Events, January 5, 2006; Bernard A. Weisberger: Reflections on the Dry Season, American Heritage Magazine, May/June 1990; Gary R. Brown: The Science Of Cheating At Cards, Invention & Technology Magazine, Summer 1998; Fredric Smoler: WHAT SHOULD WE TEACH OUR CHILDREN ABOUT AMERICAN HISTORY?, American Heritage Magazine, February/March 1992; Geoffrey C.
Harry S. Truman was the most influential figure in early Cold War politics. His policies on Soviet expansion and cooperation with western bloc countries set the stage for how other Cold War era presidents would act. It is through his handling of the Korean conflict and the issue of communism, both domestic and abroad, he can be considered the father of Cold War politics.The beginnings of communist ...
Ward: The Lost Mencken, American Heritage Magazine, December 1989; R. E. Spiller: Literary History of the United States, History Place Magazine, June1996; J. Agnew: The United States in the World, History Today Magazine, November 1987; M. Curti: The Growth of American Thought, Old News Magazine, March 1995; A. Fairclough: Better Day Coming: Blacks and Equality, 18902000, Race and History Magazine, April 1992; M. E.
Armbruster: The Presidents of the United States and Their Administrations, Smithsonian Magazine, June 2000;.