Among natures many wonders and mysteries, poisons and venoms are among the most complex. Venoms are widespread among the animal and plant kingdoms, ranging from small insects to marine invertebrates to common houseplants. Each type of venom and poison possesses a unique composition and the effects of these toxins vary greatly. Poisons and venoms are similar in that they are naturally-occurring and all have specific characteristics and effects. Venoms are classified by how they affect body systems in different ways. These include neurotoxins, myotoxins, hemotoxins, hemorrhagins, hemolysins, nephrotoxins, cardio toxins, and necrotoxins, which will all be explained.
Venom is often injected by bite from animals as a form of hunting or as self-defense. Poison, on the other hand, is most commonly associated with digestion of an ‘infected’ tissue. Venoms can be categorized by animals they are used by or by that venom’s affects. Poisons are found in some animals and in many plants. The first type of venom is neurotoxin. This venom acts by attacking the nervous system.
It does this either by causing paralysis or by interfering with nerve responses. Myotoxins damage muscle within the body. Hemotoxins affect blood, and often-times blood clotting. Hemorrhagins damage blood vessels to cause excess bleeding. Hemolysins directly attack red blood cells.
Nephrotoxins attack the kidney of the target. Cardio toxins affect the heart while necrotoxins simply destroy body tissue. Each venom is found in a different species, and sometimes more than one type exists within that specific animal. Amphibians are one particular group that includes poisonous animals.
... There have been multiple cases where animal testing has affected animals differently than it affected the humans. When cigarettes first came ... aware of it. The push of stopping animal testing has affected businesses. For example cosmetic, companies have lost ... for both human and veterinary health. From antibiotics to blood transfusions, from dialysis to organ transplantation, from vaccinations to ...
The poison dart frog, which inhabits the South American rain forests, secretes a milky poison on their skin. This helps fend off any predators that may think to eat the frog. This poison is very potent and is even used by natives in the area to poison the tips of their arrows. It should be noted, though, that this is an extreme case. Most poisons of this sort are fairly weak and cause only mild skin irritation to most organisms. Newts and salamanders contain similar secretions, used to help ward off anything that hunts them.
There are no specific cases among these, however, that pack the punch of the poison dart, or arrow, frog. One of the most peculiar groups to contain venomous animals is the birds. There are actually two birds, the hooded pitohui and the blue-capped ifrita. The hooded pitohui has a potent neurotoxin in its feathers and skin. Most shocking is that the chemical agent, homobatrachotoxin, is most commonly found in frogs. Scientists believe neither create it, but rather acquire it through their diet.
The blue-capped ifrita contains a similar chemical toxin in its feathers and skin. There are actually 5 total birds within the pitohui and ifrita groups that have been identified as poisonous birds. Another chemical agent, batrachotoxins, has also been found on the birds. Fish are another group that contains several species with toxic traits. Even the oft-seen catfish can be dangerous. Its pectoral and dorsal fins are often edged, and sometimes these sharp edges can be poisonous and worsen what would normally be a small cut.
The rat fish is similar to this as it possesses a spine in front that is often poisonous to anything it may stab. The stonefish, which has several long spines on its back, has caused death in humans. Each of its spines contains powerful venom dangerous to any it may injure. The weever shares this characteristic, but does not have the many spines the stonefish does. Other fish, such as the puffer fish, contain no venom but are very poisonous when eaten if not prepared properly. Other examples of dangerous fish include the amberjack, chimaera, rockfish, stingray, and toadfish.
... Rusty James and his brother are tracked from fish tank to fish tank. The camera shot is at a ... the officer. The objective angle across from the fish tank is exceptionally effective because it gives the ... , since both brothers are so enthralled with the fish it tends to be a light-hearted scene. ... an interesting and organized manner the movie Rumble Fish comes to mind. The director Francis Ford Coppola ...
The largest group of living organisms also has several members that are poisonous or venomous. Insects are commonly thought of as pests for their annoying bites and stings, but these are also like poisons. Some butterflies are poisonous simply because of its diet as a caterpillar. Monarch butterflies are an example of this. Birds avoid these because they are poisonous milkweed when they were caterpillars, making them distasteful to predators.
Hornets are renowned for their sting, featuring venom that can be serious to those allergic to it or if stung many times. Female wasps are similar to this, as their ovipositor is capable of injecting venom into an intruder. To most individuals the stings are nothing more than an annoyance, characterized by swelling and minor pain. This, of course, changes dramatically to those that are hyper allergic to the venom. Many caterpillars store toxic chemicals within their body as punishment to any who think to use them as a meal. Spanish flies, or blister beetles, contain a powerful toxin called batrachotoxin that is extracted and used to create certain drugs.
Mammals contain only one animal considered either venomous or poisonous. This organism is the duck-billed platypus. While bizarre for a mammal by any standards, it also possesses short ‘spikes’ on each ankle that contain incredibly powerful venom. This venom is capable or sickening a human while easily killing larger mammals, such as dogs. This tactic is normally used solely for self-defense, as the platypus will kick its foe with its hind legs, jabbing the spikes into the opposition. Among the marine invertebrates there are a great many organisms capable of poisoning an enemy.
Cnidarians employ many small nematocysts while stunning prey, which can be poisoned by some specific animals. Some mollusks, such as cones, simply have a poison glad as opposed to it being secreted within a spine or spike. Oct opi are capable of injecting venom when attacking prey with its bite, some of which are dangerous to even humans. The octopus also uses an ‘ink’ weapon, which is shot through a funnel in the mouth, but whether or not this is a sort of poison is unknown, despite that it does have a powerful affect upon enemy’s sensory organs. One of the most fearsome ocean-dwelling animals, the Portuguese Man of War, has partly earned its reputation because of a poison that is secreted among its tentacles.
“Corruption” (A poisonous black snake) Introduction:- It is not easy to define corruption. But in ...
Of course one of the most famous groups known for its many types of venom is the arthropods, which included the dreaded spiders. Spiders nearly always possess some form of venom, which is located in the chelicera e. Female black widows have a bite that is very dangerous to even humans, packing very strong poison. This poison includes a neurotoxin that is very effective against children.
The brown recluse is another arachnid that packs a very formidable punch against humans. Centipedes also can be dangerous to humans, with a bite that can have a very strong poison included. The crab spider is another arthropod that is characterized by very powerful venom that is injected with a bite. The other threat from the group is the scorpion, which uses a different tactic in injecting its opposition.
The scorpion has a tail that curves upward over its back in a protective position. At the end of the tail is a point that contains incredibly potent venom, often strong enough to seriously harm humans. Its relative, the pseudo scorpion, is similar, and uses a synonymous strategy. While spiders may be feared for their venomous bite, it is reptiles who reign supreme in matters of venom and poison. The snakes have a formidable team of venom-wielders, including adders, asps, black snakes, booms langs, bushmasters, cobras, copperheads, coral snakes, cottonmouths, death adders, fer-de-lances, kraits, mambas, massasaugas, pit vipers, rattlesnakes, sea snakes, sidewinders, and vipers. What makes this even more spectacular is that each snake has its own specific venom with different tendencies and characteristics.
These snakes are often divided between their families, two of which are the cobra and the viper families. The venom of cobras most often contains a very strong neurotoxin that strikes against the nervous system. Before an effective serum was created cobras had a considerable death list. Vipers are noteworthy because they have specialized hinged fangs that are particularly useful in injecting venom into prey. These fangs fall down and then venom is applied through a groove in the fangs.
While these are the most well-known families, all other snakes have unique venom and many have their own specific way they apply the venom. On the other side of reptiles are the lizards. There are two lizards that are venomous, the beaded lizard and the Gila monster. They each possess a venom glad near their lower jaw that comes into use when the lizard bites another organism. Of all the reptiles these are the only two known venomous that belong to the lizard order. Their venom can be lethal because it is also a neurotoxin.
... the test showed that there were 7 components in the plant sample while the second revealed 5 components. Cobra Vine (Ipomoea ... the amplitude of muscle contraction between the muscle injected with venom and anti-venin (250mg/mL concentration). A Thin Layer ... alternative low cost and environmental friendly medicine. Since cobra vine plant is commonly found in our locality, it’s never ...
Unlike other neurotoxins, theirs is capable of also paralyzing the respiratory system, often leading to death of the victim. Plants are not the only living things that may be poisonous to human systems. There are also numerous plants that can severely harm our bodies. These even include everyday plants such as daffodils, mistletoe, and iris. The easiest way to classify all these plants is by houseplants, flower garden plants, vegetable garden plants, ornamental plants, trees and shrubs, wooded area plants, swamp plants, and field plants. Each of these little groups contains unique and different examples of poisonous plants.
Narcissus, daffodil, oleander, dieffenbachia, rosary pea, and castor bean are all considered houseplants. In narcissus and daffodil the bulb is poisonous, causing vomiting, nausea, diarrhea, and can even be fatal. Oleander has poisonous leaves, causing heart problems, serious digestive harm, and even death. Dieffenbachia, or dumb cane, is poisonous throughout and can lead to intense burning and irritation of the mouth and tongue. Rosary pea and castor beans have seeds that kill upon only one or two being eaten.
Flower garden plants include irises, larkspurs, monkshood, foxglove, and bleeding heart. Irises have harmful underground stems which cause digestive upsetting. Larkspurs have poisonous seeds, leading to nervous excitement and depression. The fleshy roots or monkshood can cause digestive upset and nervous excitement. Foxglove has dangerous leaves that cause irregular heartbeat, mental confusion, and sometimes death. The only vegetable garden plant that causes problems is rhubarb.
Its leaf blades, when consumed in decent to large amounts, can cause convulsions or coma followed rapidly by death. This is one of the most poisonous plants with such serious affects. Within ornamental plants there are Daphne, wisteria, jasmine, red sage, and yew. Daphne has incredibly harmful seeds, killing individuals with only one or two seeds.
Jasmine also has berries easily capable of killing anyone who accidentally eats them. Red sage is similar, although its berries can affect the lungs, kidneys, heart and nervous system, which ultimately leads to death. Wisteria has poisonous seeds, but not nearly the same degree of toxicity, causing only mild digestive irritation. Yew is the most dangerous, because while the others are fatal as well, yew berries lead to a nearly immediate death with no symptoms shown as warning. Cherries, oaks, black locust, and elderberry are all poisonous trees and shrubs.
... . (Angiospermophyta is also called Anthophyta or Magnoliophyta) Flowering Monocot Plants (Angiospermophyta, Class Monocotyledoneae) Monocots start with one seed-leaf. ... 8217;s magic ingredient — as well as juniper berries for gin. Conifer allies include three small phyla containing ... the Yew and Ginko, produce their seeds inside a berry-like structure. Conifers are fairly easy to identify: In ...
Cherries, while normally great to eat, have toxic twigs that cause death to any who consume them. The acorns of oaks, when great amounts are consumed, can lead to kidney damage. Any part of elderberry can lead to nausea or digestive upsetting. Black locust has parts that if chewed or consumed can lead to depression, nausea, and weakness. Mistletoe, moonseed, and mayapple are all poisonous plants found in wooded areas. The berries of mistletoe have led to many deaths to both adults and children.
Moonseed also has lethal berries which are commonly mistaken for wild grapes, which often lead to their being eaten. The apples or mayapple have at least sixteen different toxic ingredients, yet it takes many to cause even diarrhea, yet it is considered poisonous, even with such small affects. Water hemlock is the only plant found in swamp areas that is harmful. That being said, it is one of the most dangerous plants found. Any part of it leads to violent and extremely painful convulsions, followed by death. Many deaths are because of the plant, often mistaken by hungry passers.
The group of field plants consists of buttercup, nightshade, thorn apple, and poison hemlock. Buttercup juices can lead to severely damaged digestive systems. Nightshade often leads to death, beginning with nervous symptoms and intense digestive disturbance. Poison hemlock, resembling a large wild carrot, causes death if consumed.
Thorn apple causes abnormal thirst, distorted sight, delirium, incoherence and coma, and has also been known to cause death. While the scientific explanations for venoms and poisons are often too complicated to describe, it is still surprising to know just how many living things can cause harm to humans and animals. Whether it is a neurotoxin injected by a snake or digestive damage caused by a plant, Mother Nature has many surprises lurking in unsuspecting places. Venoms are found in nearly all areas of animals, although reptiles and spiders seem to be most proficient in its dark art. Poisons are everywhere, though, including in common places such as mistletoe, put up by most families for Christmas. Even without complicated details, such examples still give ample warning of how harmful a simple hike in the woods can be.
... for someone to overdose they would have to consume 40,000 times as much marijuana as ... Statistics in 1987 the following statistics on deaths attributed to substances in a year were found ... Archeologists report that marijuana was possibly the first plant cultivated by humans. They estimate that date at ... considered fairly safe. The public has been lead to believe that marijuana makes people violent. This ...
Whether you eat the wrong plant or get bitten by a random snake or spider, there is always the chance the thing will be wielding some mysterious toxin that can cause all types of adverse affects upon your person.