Within this essay, I will provide an historical account of how racism first occurred and how it has taken our government some years to implement any polices that are relevant to this topic… For me to answer the first question within the essay I must first identify different views from varying authors because racism means different things to others like many things in life. By doing this and defining the fundamental term, I can begin to start answering ‘What is racism? For me to answer the second part of the question ‘Where in British society will one find it? ‘I will turn my attention to how racism is portrayed in the police service. Highlighting events, which have been historical in showing that racism, does exist within our police forces. Using the literature as a guide I will explore what polices are implemented to help protect ethnic minority groups Exploring how and if institutional racism played a part in these events and how the polices that we have in place failed Stephen Lawrence.
It was a common occurrence in the 18th century for Africans to be sold in the slave trade. This was not due to prejudice against the Africans but for the reason the merchants wanted to make a profit. During this time a profit was been made by the merchants contributing to economic profit so the logical thinking originated that white people were more superior. British government argued that as we had power over the countries that it was for honourable cause and that ‘white supremacy’ was required for human growth.
RACISM IN AMERICA If someone asked you what it would be like to live in a perfect world, how would you reply? Many people might say something like, “A place without and arguments or fighting.” Others might say “A place where there is not pollution.” But, has anyone one ever thought to say, “A place without racism.”? For some Americans, racism has never even crossed their minds. For others, it is ...
As early as the 1950’s concern was growing and major debates where happening on race relations, immigration, and the longer term acts of discrimination amongst those of ethnic minorities. However, as stated in Solomos (1989:80) ‘The first measures to deal with potential racial conflict and tackle racial discrimination were taken in the 1960’s. ’ This some ten years after the first concerns were raised. What is racism? Where in British society will we find it? Racism exists in many forms in British society today.
This can present itself in the form of verbal, Physical, emotional and the general treatment of ethnic minority. ‘One in three admitted regularly making comments or being involved in discussions which could be considered racist’. (Reilly, 2013) Racism stems from the belief that one nation or one person is superior to another. Racism has manifested itself in to more than one particular situation and with its narrow mindedness; it has evolved overtime. Racism has many different forms and can be found in our education systems, the police ervice, the National Health Service and the government and in society in general. William Macpherson reported (1999) ‘that racism within all organizations and institutions… it infiltrates the community and starts among the very young’. We can define racism by using the formula prejudice and power equal racism. Another form of racism is when the use of radical prejudice is turned in to an action that damages others. Racism is purely based on the colour of another’s skin. Belief that one race is far more superior to another race.
Racism is also destructive and exenterates people through shattering their identity. Racism is colossal issue in today’s society and is causing so much conflict amongst many parts of our world. When discussing racism my idea of the subject is that one person feels they are superior to another. In addition, the colour of someone’s skin becomes a problem for some people. Wetherell and Potter suggest, ‘In the absence of any definition, the concept becomes meaningless and opposition to racism is hindered. If racism is defined too broadly – all white people are racists. Wetherell et al, 1992:15-16, 69-71 cited in Miles et al, 2003:3) With the above quote in mind, I feel that racism is going to be a vast topic to define and that without an appropriate definition are all white people deemed as racist? Child line (2013) define racism as the following; ‘Racism is treating someone differently or unfairly simply because they belong to a different race or culture. Fredrickson (1934) cited in Rattansi (2002) also suggested; ‘Racism is often used in an unreal and unreflective way to describe a hostile or negative feeling towards ethnic groups’.
Mr. Man Your Class Your Teacher 4-06-01 Racism Have you ever been picked on or made fun of because your nationality is different from someone else's or the color of your skin? If so, then the person who did it was probably a racist person. Racism still exists within all cultures. Some people won't admit they " re a racist, but their actions and words prove otherwise. Most people won't directly ...
Following my research the definitions of racism given by the authors above and the vast difference in view it could be suggest that racism it not an easy subject to define and that the topic is extensive as mentioned above. Supporting this assumption is the reference below that implies that racism is a ‘thought out process’ which can emerge and have a profound effect on various areas in British society. ‘Racism continues to blight the lives of the black population in Britain today. It operates in the systematic discrimination which black people face in the labour market, and the housing, education and health services. (Solomos and Back, 1996 cited in Penketh, 2000: 7) People become racist for different reasons. A probable cause is that the attitudes they have inherited from their parents, family or other peer groups. Suggesting that people only become racist if they are brought up in racist environments studies have been carried out that show children below the ages of three are not prejudiced. This idea is supported by Think quest (2013) ‘A child is not born racist. If the child is not exposed to, racism is in its environment then there no reason for the child to become racist.
However if the child has been brought up to look at people belonging to groups, such as blacks or whites, instead of individuals, it will begin to compare the groups and draw conclusions depending on the group they belong to, instead of the way they are as individuals’. (Thinkquest, 2013) Other possible causes of racism is fear that people or things are different in some way and possibly threaten their way of life. This type of fear may develop in to hatred thus leading to racial discrimination. People who are racist will often blame other groups for their problems rather than their own for example unemployment.
Racism An underlying problem is promoting racism. It is the fact that a lot of people believe, and try to make they believe, that racism no longer exists. Many people today live their lives oblivious to what is happening in the world around them, often trying to convince themselves that racism is not a problem in their world. Others know all about the problem, but don't really realize that they ...
Through my research varies forms of racism seem to emerge; ‘New racism is defined by Solomos; ‘By the way it mobilises notions of culture and a notion to construct a definition of the British nation that excludes those of different cultural, ethnic or racial background’ (Solomos, 1989:33) However, Wiley (2005) argues… ‘That this ‘new racism’ is shown in more subtle and indirect formal expressions, such as a denial of societal discrimination, rather than the one popular expressions of ‘old fashioned’ genetic inferiority and segregationism’.
New racism seems to bring about the same contentions that the definitions of racism has with various authors giving different ideas as to what this means. Therefore leading me to believe that the task of understanding and tackling racism in British society is a difficult task. Guiding me now in discussing institutional racism. Penketh (2000) suggests institutional racism has now begun to be recognised as its own sector of the racism within British society. During the past decade the extent and nature of racism in British society has been given an increasingly high public and political profile, and the interpretation of racism has moved from one based on personal prejudice, towards an acknowledgement of its institutional manifestation. ’ (Penketh, 2000: 8) Looking at the above reference it can be suggested that using the reference above by Penketh (2000) it can be proposed institutional racism has, of late, become a more visible factor when investigating the roots of racist views.
However, institutional racism, as viewed by Mason (2000) is ‘aimed to draw attention to the systematic, structural character of racism that had its roots in the organization of societies like Britain and the United States. ’ Granted, both authors hint that institutional racism is a growing cause of concern within Britain today. Racism, New Racism and Institutional Racism can on a whole be argued and be defined in many ways. Nevertheless, for the purpose of this essay I will use the reference above Mason (2000) to define institutional racism, which in turn will allow me to gain a better insight in to my chosen topic.
Cooperation from members of the public is important in order for police officers to effectively fight crime within the community. In order to obtain cooperation from members of the public, police officers must gain their trust and confidence. It has been known that African Americans and Hispanics have lower levels of trust and confidence in police because of racial disparities and racial profiling ...
After having researched these types of racism, I have chosen to look at institutional racism within the police force. Examples of this type of racism are The Stephen Lawrence case. Discuss polices in place to protect ethnic minority groups and how these polices failed the above two examples. This kind of racism can be suggested to be found in many work places, public and private sector jobs across Britain. ‘…the Macpherson Report emphasises, racism operates in all organisations and institutions in society, and blights the lives of Britain’s black population. (MacPherson, 1999 cited in Penketh, 2000: 9) The murder of Stephen Lawrence in April 1993 brought about many questions on how the police failed this young man and his family. After years of blunders and justice not been prevailed Jack Straw the Labour home secretary ordered an inquiry to be conducted. The role of this enquiry was to be led by Sir William MacPherson and his colleagues. The conclusion of this report was Macpherson and his colleagues made 70 recommendations of which only 68 have been implemented.
The MacPherson inquiry also suggested that the police force who dealt with the Stephen Lawrence murder inquiry allowed institutional racism but no one was ever charged. ‘Among the few critical voices raise raised in response to the publication in 1999 of sir William MacPherson’s report into the racist murder of Stephen Lawrence were those that argued that the detailed analysis and extensive recommendations revealed little or nothing that many activists had not been saying for years’ (Rowe,2007:xi)
Even with these recommendation and the ideas and views of institutional racism in place and firmly been discussed the senior police commissioner Paul Condon still argued; ‘That he could not be expected to accept the police service is institutionally racist when there is no consensus on what the term itself means’. (Rowe, 2004:9) Referring back to the above quotes on institutional racism it can be seen that although there are many different views and ideas they all form some consensus in meaning something the same.
Even 20 years ago the ideology was still prominent but nothing was been done. Again in the media lime light the Stephen Lawrence case is still raising issues of intuitional racism and our government doing nothing to stop it as supported in the reference below; Meanwhile, the idea of “institutional racism” provided a language for critics of the state, but conversely meant public bodies could adopt the mantle of intuitional racism, publish the figures – and then do nothing about it, because the legislation did not provide a sanction. Khaleei, 2013) The above reference is supported by the view of Penketh (2000) when suggesting we use the term institutional racism to show the government publishing figures and adapting polices when really this does nothing to help those from ethnic minority backgrounds. Supporting this is Rowe (2004) suggests that the Scarman report (1981) did not accept that institutional racism existed within the police whereas Macpherson controversially made a finding that this did exist in our police forces.
ETHNIC RELATIONS IN PENINSULAR MALAYSIA: THE CULTURAL AND ECONOMIC DIMENSIONS Abstract This paper looks at the changing ethnic relations in Peninsular Malaysia in terms of the interactions between the state’s policies to advance Malay cultural dominance and reduce ethnic economic inequality and the aspirations and actions of the Chinese community. The state of ethnic relations partly will depend ...
Again after all the research I have done I would agree with the Macpherson inquiry that we do have institutional racism within our police forces and that not enough even 20 years after the murder of Stephen Lawrence is been done to help ethnic minority people. The race relation act (1976) was supposed to help protect ethnic minority groups but as far as I can see this is just not happening. The 1976 act did not ‘apply to operational aspects of policing’.
Baxter (1997) suggests that the numbers of black and ethnic minority people living in an area could be seen to affect the race equality laws the government have in place. Even after the act was amended in (2000) this act still as suggested by Rowe (2004:34) ‘there may have been significant changes but only in a legal context’ this then questioning how this would affect the everyday lives of ethnic minority groups. Although ‘Under the terms of the act the police service now has a protective legal duty to tackle racial discrimination and promote race equality. Rowe,2004:34)However during my research it can be argued that the police forces are doing little or nothing to stop racial discrimination or to promote race equality. Therefore leading me to believe that not only racism but also institutional racism are part of our British society today and this is not only just from the lower classes but also higher up me our food chain. I believe more should be done within our polices and legislation to help protect those of ethnic minority backgrounds and give them the equality they deserve.
Ethnic Minorities, Holdaway, S. Simon Holdaways article Constructing and Sustaining 'Race' within the Police Workforce is a good example of politically indoctrinated sociologist trying to analyze the issue, which is well beyond of his sphere of competence. Author denies the validity of biological concept of race. Thus, the instances of racism, mentioned in his articles must be motivated ...
To conclude this essay I would agree that a current definition of racism and other types of racism such as institutional and new racism are hard to distinguish, as there are so many viewpoints and varying types of racism. However, Macpherson (1999) gave me a basis to allow me a basic knowledge and to understand that racism within Britain today takes on many forms and appears in all areas of our society. Leading me to the conclusion, that racism in whatever form is not only evident in our society it is clearly part of our everyday lives.
Also asking the question how it took a government nearly ten years to implement any policies that tackled racial conflict and discrimination. Was ‘racism’ and ‘white supremacy’ that imbedded in our society even the government chose to ignore it? The failings of the police force during both the Stephen Lawrence case only further increasing my disappointment in a society, which should celebrate the diversity and equality of those ethnic minorities that share our country.
References Aspen, K (2007) The Hounding of David Oluwale. London: Vintage Books. Baxter, C (1997) Race Equality in Health Care and Education: London: Bailliere Tindall. Fredrickson, G (1934) Racism a short History. New Jersey: Prinston University Press Hall, N Grieve, J and Savage, S (2009) Policing and the Legacy of Lawrence. Devon: Willan Publishing http://www. childline. org. uk/explore/racism/pages/racism. aspx [Access online]