The Central Inteligence Agency The CIA is one of the U. S. foreign agencies, responsible for getting and analyzing information about foreign government, corporations, individuals, and reporting such information to the various branches of the U. S. government. The State Department’s Bureau or intelligence and research and the Defense Department’s defense intelligence agency comprise the other two.
Its headquarters is in Langley, Virginia, across the Potomac River from D. C. The Agency, created in 1947 by President Harry S. Trueman, is a descendant of the Office of strategic Services (OSS) of World War 2. The OSS was dissolved in October 1945 but William J. Jona van, the creator of the OSS, had submitted a proposal to President Roosevelt in 1944.
He called for a new organization having direct Presidential supervision, ‘which will procure intelligence both by overt and covert methods and will at the same time provide intelligence guidance, determine national intelligence objectives, and correlate the intelligence material collected by all government agencies.’ Despite strong opposition from the military, the State Department, and the FBI, Truman established the Central Intelligence Group in January 1946. Later under the National Security Act of 1947, the National Security council and the Central Intelligence Agency were established. In 1949, the Central Inteligence Agency Act (also called ‘Public Law 110’) was passed, permitting the agency to use confidential fiscal and administrative procedures and exempting it from many of the usual limitations on the use of federal funds. The act also exempted the CIA from having to disclose its ‘organization, functions, officials, titles, salaries, or numbers of personnel employed.’ It also created a program called ‘PL-110’ to handle defectors and other ‘essential aliens’ outside normal immigration procedures, as well as give those persons cover stories and economic support. The Central Intelligence Agency reports to U. S.
... the predominant army orientation of the OSS. The National Security Act of 1947 established the Central Intelligence Agency that took over the functions of ... dented the IC’s image and there have been renewed calls for strengthening congressional oversight over the workings of the IC ... public the roll call of its employees or where they were being employed. So the powers of the agency were vastly ...
Congressional committees but also answers to the President directly. The National Security Advisor is a permanent cabinet member responsible for briefing the President on pertinent information collected from all U. S. intelligence agencies including the National Security Agency, the Drug Enforcement Agency, and others. Some critics have charged that this violates the requirement in the U. S.
Constitution that the Federal Budget be openly published. In 1988, President Gorge H. W. Bush became the first former head of the CIA to become President of the United States. The activities of the CIA are largely undisclosed. It undoubtedly makes use of the surveillance Sattelite’s of the National Recconasonsse Office (NRO) and the signal interception capabilities of the NSA, including the Echelon system, and the surveillance aircraft of the various branches of the US armed forces.
At one stage, the CIA even operated its own fleet of U-2 surveillance aircraft. The agency also employs a group of officers with paramilitary skills in its Special Division. Micheal Spain, a CIA officer killed in November 2001 during the U. S. Invasion of Afghanistan, was one such individual. In its earliest years the CIA attempted to rollback Communism in Eastern Europe by supporting local anti-communist groups; none of these attempts met with much success.
It was more successful in its efforts to limit Communist influence in France and Italy, though many believe there was never much of a Communist threat in these nations. It has now been firmly established that the OSS actively recruited and protected many high ranking Nazi officers immediately following World War 2, a policy that was carried on by the CIA. These included, the CIA now admits, the notorious ‘butcher of Lyon’ Klaus Barbi, Hitler’s Chief of Soviet Intelligence General Reinhard Gehlen, and numerous less-renowned Gestapo officers. General Gehlen, due to his extensive intelligence assets within the Soviet Union, was allowed to keep his spy-network intact after the war in the service of the U. S. The Gehlen organization soon became one of America’s chief sources of Intelligence on the Soviet Union during the cold war, and formed the basis for what would later become the German intelligence agency the BND.
... the United States security (Central Intelligence Agency 254). The CIA also unifies the activities of other important agencies in the intelligence community such as the Defense Intelligence Agency and ... ). The four directorates of the CIA include Intelligence, Operations, Science and Technology, and Administration. The Intelligence Directorate examines intelligence that is collected both openly and ...
With Europe stabilizing along the line of the Iron Curtin, the CIA then moved in the 1950 s to try and limit the spread of Soviet influence elsewhere around the globe, especially in the Third World. Clandestine operations quickly proved very successful: in Iran in 1953 and in Guatemala in 1954, CIA operations, with little funding, played a major role in ensuring pro-American governments ruled those states. The risk of such activities became readily obvious during the CIA organized Bay of Pigs Invasion of Cuba in 1961. The failure embarrassed the CIA and the United States on the world stage, as Cuban dictator Fidel Castro used the botched invasion to consolidate power and strengthen ties with the Soviet Union. CIA operations became less ambitious after the Bay of Pigs, and shifted to being closely linked to aiding the U. S.
military operation in Vietnam. Between 1962 and 1975, the CIA organized a Laotian group known as the Secret Army and ran a fleet of aircraft known as Air America to take part in the Secret War in Laos, part of the Vietnam War. The CIA continued to involve itself in Latin America. During the early 1970’s, the CIA conducted operations to prevent the election of Salvador Allende in Chile.
When these operations failed, the CIA joined in the planning of the coup which would overthrow Allende. In the early 1980’s, the CIA funded and armed the Contras in Nicaruga, forces opposed to the Sandinista government in that country, until the Boland Amendment forbade the agency from continuing their support. This support resulted in a World Court decision in the case Nicaragua United States ordering the United States to pay Nicaragua reparations. In 1993, with support of the US government, Colombia created the Search Block to locate and kill Pablo Escu bar. Defectors such as former agent Philip Agee have alleged that such CIA covert action is extraordinarily widespread, extending to campaigns within countries allied to the United States. The agency has also been accused of participation in the illegal drug trade, notably in Laos, Afghanistan, and Nicaragua.
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It is known to have attempted Assassinations of foreign leaders, most notably Fidel Castro, though since 1976 a Presidential order has banned such ‘executive actions’, except during wartime. In 1996, the U. S. House Permanent Select Commitee on Intelligence issued a congressional report estimating that the clandestine services part of the Intelligence community ‘easily’ breaks ‘extremely serious laws’ in countries around the world, 100, 000 times every year. On Nov. 5 th, 2002, newspapers reported that Al-Queda operatives in a car traveling through Yemen had been killed by a missile launched from a CIA-controlled Predator Drone (a high-altitude, remote-controlled aircraft).
The activities of the CIA have caused considerable political controversy both in the United States and in other countries, often nominally friendly to the United States, where the agency has operated (or been alleged to).
For instance, the CIA has supported various dictators, including the brutal Augusto Pinochet who have been friendly to perceived US geopolitical interests, sometimes over democratically elected governments. Often cited as one of the American intelligence community’s biggest blunders is the CIA involvement in equipping and training Mujaheedeen fighters in Afghanistan, a group of radical Islamists who would later form the core of the Al- network. Zbigneiw Brzezinski, the National Security Advisor under President Carter, has discussed U. S. involvement in Afghanistan in several publications.
The CIA facilitated the so-called Reagan Doctrine, channel ling weapons and other support (in addition to the Mujahideen and the Contras) to Jonas Savimbi’s UNITA rebel movement in Angola, thus turning an otherwise low-profile African civil war into one of the larger battlegrounds of the Cold War. The agency has also been criticized for ineffectiveness as an intelligence gathering agency. These criticisms included allowing a double agent, Aldrich Ames, to gain high position within the organization, and for focusing on finding informants with information of dubious value rather than on processing the vast amount of open source intelligence. In addition, the CIA has come under particular criticism for failing to predict the collapse of the Soviet Union and India’s nuclear tests or to forestall the Sept 11 th, 2001 attacks. Conversely, proponents of the CIA respond by stating that only the failures become known to the public, whereas the successes typically do not become known until decades have past. Some successes for the CIA include the U-2 and SR-71 programs, anti-Soviet operations in Afghanistan in the mid-1980’s, and perhaps others which may not come to light for some time.
... ambiguity of purpose’. As a result, the Iraq War or otherwise known as ‘Operation Iraqi freedom’ was to become one of the ... balance of power has led to widespread concern amongst Arab states because of how easily Iran can 'manoeuvre in the core ... war. Mitchell argues that a number of policy errors were made by both governments. He argues that 'opinions were not debated, intelligence ...
One very successful 1982 CIA operation was made public on Feb. 2 nd, 2004 by William Safire of the New York Times, and was detailed in the book At the Abyss: an insiders History of the Cold War, by Thomas C. Reed. The Soviets were constructing a trans-Siberian petroleum pipeline, and required computer software to run the pumps, Turbines, and Valves necessary to operate the pipeline. Rather than develop their own, they set out to steal the required technology from the United States. The operation was detected by the French DOSE, and the information was passed to Gus Weiss at the CIA.
Weiss ran a coordinated operation to alter the software so that it would function properly during testing, but fail in production. The Soviets did indeed put the software into production, and the pipeline did fail. This resulted in the largest non-nuclear explosion ever, detected from space by NORAD’s early warning sensors. There is however no supporting evidence for that anecdote. The head of the CIA is given the title Director of Central Intelligence (DCI); DCI means Office of the Director of Central Intelligence.
The DCI is not only the head of the CIA but also the leader of the entire U. S. Intelligence Community and the President’s principal advisor on intelligence matters. New legislation was passed in early December 2004 that will likely replace the latter duties with a Director of Nation Intelligence. The current DCI is Porter Gross, who was nominated by President George Bush Jr on August 10 th, 2004 and was confirmed by the Senate on Sept. 21 st.
... sore point with the military service intelligence organizations. In addition, the operations elements of the CIA did not believe they should ... Group of the Office of Special Operations to form the Office of Scientific Intelligence (OSI). In its early years ... take OSI direction with regard to the collection of scientific intelligence. ...
Goss inherits the post previously held by John E. Mclaughlin, who served as interim director after longtime director George Tenet resigned on June 3 rd, 2004 and left the post on 11 July. Goss previously served as head of the House Intelligence Commit as a representative from Florida. According to some sources the CIA appears to have supported the 1963 military coup in Iraq and the subsequent Saddam Hsien-led government up until the point of the 1990 Iraqi invasion of Kuwait. US support was premised on the notion that Iraq was a key buffer state in relations with the Soviet Union. There are court records indicating that the CIA gave military and monetary assistance to Iraq during the Iran-Iraq War.
In 2002 an unnamed source, quoted in the Washington Post, says that the CIA was authorized to undertake a covert operation, if necessary with help of the Special Forces, that could serve as a preparation for a full-scale military attack of Iraq. It became widely known that the basis of the second Gulf War in 2003 was erroneous intelligence regarding Iraq’s weapons capability. The term ‘Weapons of Mass Destruction’ (WMD) was famous around the world and was frequently used to deride those who had initiated the invasion, notably George Bush Jr. and Tony Blair. The questions of whether CIA intelligence could have prevented the Sept. 11 th, 2001, terrorist attack on the World Trade Center and the unreliability of U.
S. intelligence on Weapons of mass Destruction in Iraq have been a focus of intense scrutiny in the U. S. in 2004 particularly in the context of the 9/11 Commision, the continuing armed resistance against U. S. occupation of Iraq, and the widely perceived need for systematic review of the respective roles of the CIA, FBI and the Defense Intelligence Agency.
On July 9 th, 2004 the Senate report of Pre-war Intelligence on Iraq of the Senate Intelligence Committe stated that the CIA described the danger presented by Weapons of Mass Destruction in Iraq in an unreasonable way, largely unsupported by the available intelligence. In a briefing held Sept 15 th, 2001 George Tenet presented the Worldwide Attack Matrix, a ‘top-secret’ document describing covert CIA anti-terror operations in 80 countries in Asia, the Middle East, and Africa. The actions, underway or being recommended, would range from ‘routine propaganda to lethal covert action in preparation for military attacks’. The plans, if carried out, ‘would give the CIA the broadest and most lethal authority in its history’.
... Allendes inauguration on November 3, the CIA continued working toward a military coup. A CIA note, in which the mentality of ... new activities to include propaganda, black operations, surfacing of intelligence or disinformation, personal contacts, or anything else your ... part of Track II the CIA secretly conspired with top ranking Chilean military officials. CIA deputy director of plans Thomas ...