The famous Bill Cosby one said, “Through humor, you can soften some of the worst blows that life delivers. And once you find laughter, no matter how painful your situation might be, you can survive it.” First, The National Dissemination Center for Children with Disabilities defined intellectual disability as being a person that has certain limitations in mental functioning and in skills such as communicating, taking care of one’s self, and social skills. Also, all of these limitations and more cause a person to learn and develop slower than any typical child. Autism is defined as a mental condition, present from early childhood, characterized by great difficulty in communicating and forming relationships. It also is a condition where the fantasy dominates over reality, as a symptom of schizophrenia and other disorders. The cause of autism is unknown or idiopathic. Most people believe that genetic disorders or exposures to toxins cause autism or show some autism-like symptoms though. Severe disabilities are defined as people who traditionally have been labeled as having severe profound mental retardation. Multiple disabilities are defined as and basically are concomitant impairments such as mental retardation-blindness, mental retardation-orthopedic impairment or a combination of the two.
... varying types of disability, where people with “mental disabilities” – particularly individuals with intellectual disabilities (ID) or mental illness (MI) ... State University, best-selling author, diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder; Barbara Streisand, actor/musician, diagnosed with ... presents the unknown; therefore, stigma. Stigma is defined as disgrace and discredit, which lead to ...
The cause of severe disabilities and multiple disabilities are undefined even though more than half of the children are born this way. In some known cases it is said that these disabilities occur from chromosomal abnormalities, developmental disorders of the brain, metabolic disorders, and negative prenatal environmental influences such as drinking, taking drugs that are not prescribed or safe for the baby or even getting hit or pushed on your stomach to where you have to deliver your child prematurely can also cause disabilities. Intellectual disability can be caused by any condition that impairs the development of the brain before birth, during birth or in the childhood years. The major known causes are Down syndrome, Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD) and Fragile X syndrome. Secondly, I have a close friend whose child was born with multiple and severe disabilities. Someone was breaking into her mother’s house and she heard a noise and got it and the man was trying to get away so he pushed her down the stairs and she landed on her stomach and had to be rushed to the hospital to deliver. Now her son has to live with this disability for the rest of his life.
He can’t walk yet, his eyes roll certain ways like he is trying to see, can’t really say words just use gestures and noises or feed himself. I can recall braiding his hair one time and he was very disturbed. I don’t know if it was because he didn’t recognize me or what but he cried the whole time, bit on his hand (which she had to take him to the hospital for because he had done chewed on his hand so much that he made them bleed but he didn’t know any better) leaned his body a certain way and he needed things like noise makers and other things to chew on and even though he was going on three years old he was still on a bottle. It was a sad site to see because she would cry just thinking about if she would ever hear him call her mama one day, walk with no help of anyone or braces and just run around and play with all the other kids without have a outburst or some sort. These disabilities have such an impact on the education of the students with intellectual disability because it makes learning harder for themselves and the teachers and parents that are also included in this particular task. According to Westling & Fox (2008), curriculum is the starting point for learners with severe disabilities.
... study students’ opinions on the learning activities. (University Library) Although the number of children enrolled in early childhood education ... decisions, teaching methods and curriculum creation. For example a teacher with extensive knowledge in child development will be able ... and/ or adapt curriculum to fit the child’s needs. It is important to understand child development and to recognize ...
It therefore goes without saying that the degree to which curriculum addresses the diverse needs of learners is largely important and relevant. Hardman et al. (2009) goes ahead to note that today, it is not uncommon to have learners with more than one disability type in the class setting. Another area of curriculum necessary for students with severe disabilities is on instructional adaptations. This essentially means that the curriculum is formulated with instructions that are high quality for purposes of catering for those with severe disabilities. For those with severe disabilities, the main goal of education should be to enhance self sufficiency through teaching academics (functional) as well as a wide range of abilities required in the day to day life around the domains of leisure, work, community as well as home. However, the educational methods, focus and curricula shall vary with regard to school placement and support needs. Thirdly, the policies, procedures and programs for the education of students with intellectual disability, autism, and severe and multiple disabilities include procedural safeguards such as a “Notice of Procedural Safeguards, Rights of Parents of Students with Disabilities” which if the child is treated wrong or doesn’t receive equal rights or privileges the parent can file a complaint.
They actually have a policy where a child with disabilities can be taught in a least restrictive environment (LRE).
Some programs include the Individualized Education Program (IEP), Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act (IDEA) which allows children with disabilities to have a free and appropriate public education (FAPE).
In Texas, students with disabilities who are receiving special education services are give five options when it comes to graduating. The options include: (1) the student completes the district minimum curriculum and credit requirements for graduation and passes the state wide assessment (2) the student completes the district minimum curriculum and credit requirements for graduation and participates in required state assessments. The student’s ARD committee shall determine whether passing the sate assessment will be required for graduation (3) a child who graduates under the IEP may return and be eligible for services through the end of the school year in which the child reaches age 22.
... program, therefore, is to address curriculum and assessment issues related to the education of young children and discuss ways schools can change ... reflect current knowledge of human learning and fails to produce students who possess the kind of higher-order thinking and ... be considered in determining what should be learned; however, parents and community will not necessarily agree on all goals. The ...
The Admission, Review, and Dismissal (ARD) committee must determine needed educational services upon the request of the child or parent to resume services, as long as the child meets the age eligibility requirements (4) the student meets the district minimum credit and curriculum requirements and complete his or her IEP requirements and meets one of the following conditions: graduates through full time employment, demonstrates mastery specific employability skills or self-help skills, has access to services, employment, or education outside the realm of public education (5) the student is no longer eligible for services because of his or her age and has completed required coursework and the IEP.
Last but not least, these policies and programs address the areas of curriculum listed of above more than ignore them. The fact that a parent can have a child that can be placed in a least restrictive environment to learn is the best thing children with disabilities could it takes a strain from the other students in functional classrooms. Also, because the students will be able to get the attention they need instead of waiting on the teacher or getting annoyed because children with disabilities tend to be impatient. In conclusion it is important for the curriculum design be effective and inclusive for students with disabilities with the effort of both the teachers and the families that have to deal with this particular situation. It also ensures that the objectives of the curriculum are based on the facts and research obtained so that it could be helpful and useful in the classroom and in the eyes of everyone else.
Celebi, J. (2011).
Top 20 Winning Quotes for Parents of Children with Special Needs – Overwhelmed No More! BLOG – SpecialNeedsParentCoach.com. Home – SpecialNeedsParentCoach.com. Retrieved January 12, 2013, from //www.specialneedsparentcoach.com/blog/2009/7/30/top-20-winning-quotes-for-parents-of-children-with-special-n.html Hardman, M.L., Drew, C.J., & Eagan, M.W. (2009).
... notion that students with mild disabilities are qualitatively different from other children. That is not true. Students with disabilities go through ... same opportunities as other children. Sometimes these children are clled Special and are placed in a special education program. However there ... (and the guilt) for a student’s learning problem squarely on the parents’ shoulders. In many cases, this ...
Human exceptionality: Society, School and Family. Allyn and Bacon
Intellectual Disability — National Dissemination Center for Children with Disabilities. (2011, January).
National Dissemination Center for Children with Disabilities —. Retrieved January 12, 2013, from //nichcy.org/disability/specific/intellectual Westling, D.L. & Fox, L. (2008).
Teaching Students with Severe Disabilities. Pearson
What is Special Education? (2009, August).
Garland Independent School District. Retrieved January 12, 2013, from //www.garlandisd.net/departments/special_education/documents/What%20is%20SPED.pdf