1.1Background of the Study
Employees are a valuable corporate asset that must be managed by the company in order to provide optimal contribution. One of the things that should be the primary concern of the company is the job satisfaction of their employees, because the employees in the work they do not feel comfortable, under-appreciated, cannot develop all their potential, then automatically the employee unable to focus and concentrate fully on the job . employee job satisfaction by Hariadja (2002) it can be seen that “the job is not just doing a job, but also related to other aspects such as interacting with co-workers, superiors, follow the rules – the rules and the specific work environment often inadequate or lacking preferred. ‘
Job satisfaction is basically an individual, each individual has a different level of job satisfaction – vary according to desire and value system espoused. (Handoko, 2000).
More and more aspects of the work in accordance with the wishes and individual value systems adopted, the higher the level of satisfaction obtained. Likewise, more and more aspects of the job that is not in accordance with the wishes and individual value systems adopted, the lower the level of satisfaction obtained. Job satisfaction is a pleasant emotional state with how workers view their work. Job satisfaction reflects one’s feelings towards his work can be seen from the attitude of employees towards work and everything else in the working environment. All types of companies actually requires a working system to seriously pay attention to the job satisfaction of its employees. As noted Handoko (1995) “Employees who do not get job satisfaction will never attain psychological maturity and, in turn, would be frustrated.”
The present study explored the factor structure of engagement and its relationship with job satisfaction. The authors hypothesize that work engagement comprises 3 constructs: vigor, dedication, and absorption. Using structural equation modeling, the authors analyze data from 3 archival data sets to determine the factor structure of engagement. In addition, they examine the hypothesis that ...
Aspects – aspects that can shape employees’ job satisfaction include:
individual factors (age, sex, personal attitude towards work), a factor inter-employee relationships (relationships between managers and employees, the social relationships between fellow employees, a suggestion from a co-worker, physical factors and workplace conditions, emotional and employment situation) external factors (family circumstances, recreation, education).
Aspect gives motivation to achieve job satisfaction for employees. And the obligation to meet the job satisfaction is every leader of the company, because job satisfaction is a factor that is believed to motivate employees so that employees can deliver the best results for the company so that performance can be improved.
Besides job satisfaction also have significance for employee self-actualization. Employees who do not get job satisfaction will not achieve psychological maturity. Employees who get a good job satisfaction typically have attendance records, job rotation and job performance is good compared to employees who did not get job satisfaction. Job satisfaction has a very important meaning to provide a conducive environment situation of the company.
1.1.1Measuring the level of job satisfaction
The researcher thinks that to measure the level of job satisfaction, it is require to provide some appropriate definitions of job satisfaction because it is very complex issue to measure the level of job satisfaction within an organization. As cited by Rashid (1983) shows that there is no simple definition of the job satisfaction because it means different things to different people. He described that job satisfaction varies in fact according to what a person seeks in a job, how he or she ranks the items sought in order to priority, and how well the job permits the person to achieve the various personal goals. Job satisfaction is simply how people feel about their jobs and different aspects of their jobs. It is the extent to which people like (satisfaction) or dislike (dissatisfaction) their jobs (Spector, 1997).
... expressed higher levels of job satisfaction than the younger employees did. A predictor of job satisfaction came from discussion. Earlier research on job characteristics demonstrated that employee satisfaction was ... 6 items of job satisfaction, and 7 items of demographics. The Job Characteristics Inventory (JCI), developed by Sims et al. measures employees perceptions of the ...
According to McKenna (2000), the most frequently adopted approach to
measuring job satisfaction involves the use of rating scales that are standard instrument that are designated to provide feedback on specific examples of employee satisfaction and dissatisfaction. He also mentioned that there are other techniques for measuring job satisfaction such as critical incidents and interviews. The technique in which the employees are requested to focus on some situation or incident that is related to job satisfaction is known as critical incident technique where the employees experience greater freedom to express themselves, unlike the situation with rating scales.
Another technique interview that is regarded as more open-ended approach than critical incidents and where interviews offer interviewee wider scope in terms of response (McKenna, 2000 p.280).
Moreover, Archnahr, et al., (2006) have stated that to measure level of job satisfaction is very subjective approach. The psychometric tools are the most effective and efficient to measure level of job satisfaction. Other tools that can be used to measure job satisfaction include- global measure that measures the overall satisfaction of the job; facet measure where satisfaction is measured on each aspect of the job.
According to Stanton et al. (2001), job description index (JDI) items is one the best methods that can be used to measure level of job satisfaction of the employees within the organization. This JDI items include- working environment, payment, promotion, supervision and relations with co-workers etc. However, other researchers have used JDI in relation to measure level of job satisfaction. For instance, the JDI is an instrument that is used to assess job satisfaction more than any other inventory (Kinicki, 2002).
Balzer et al. (1997) describes the purpose of the JDI as well as the validity and reliability conducted. The basis for the Job Descriptive Index is that job satisfaction is important for three different reasons: humanitarian concerns, economic concerns, and theoretical concerns.
... has explored the relationship between job satisfaction and performance and indicates at the complexity involved in making a relationship between job satisfaction and employee performance. Judge et al. ... Ahmed, Habib, Ahmed, Khursheed, Idrees, Ali shah, 2010, Relationship between Job Satisfaction, Job Performance Attitude towards Work and Organizational Commitment, European Journal of Social Sciences ...
Humanitarian concerns: Humanitarian concerns are of interest because employers want people to be satisfied with their jobs. Job satisfaction has been related to various factors, like physical and mental health, as well as overall life satisfaction, so it is important for people to be satisfied at work (Balzer et al., 1997).
Economic concerns: Economic concerns are of interest to employers because they want to get the most from their employees. If happier employees lead to increased productivity, then it is worth the employer’s time to make the employees satisfied. Job satisfaction can also lead to various factors like decreased absenteeism, reduced turnover, and fewer on the job injuries (Balzer et al., 1997).
Theoretical concerns: Theoretical concerns are of interest because many people view satisfaction as the cause of work-related behaviours, such as maintaining good working relationships, coming to work, and doing the job well (Balzer et al., 1997).
Other researchers (e.g. MacDonald, 1996; O’Toole, 1980) argue in favour of the control of job satisfaction by factors intrinsic to the workers. Their arguments are based on the idea that workers deliberately decide to find satisfaction in their jobs and perceive them as worthwhile. Several authors and researcher have revealed that job satisfaction is an important aspect within the organizational performance, particularly in the hospitality and hotel industry as the business is concern with services through the employees.
For example, according to Nguyen, et al. (2003), job satisfaction is an issue of substantial important both for employers and employees. They suggest that employers benefit from satisfied employees as they are more likely to profit from lower staff turnover and higher productivity if their employees experience a high level of job satisfaction. However, employees should also ‘be happy in their work, given the amount of time they have to devote to it throughout their working lives’. Thus, the researcher will adopt and implement some common and appropriate tools and techniques for the purpose of measuring level of job satisfaction in relation to investigate and analyse the effect of job satisfaction on the employee’s work performance at JUPEM Negeri Sembilan.
1.1.2Relationship between job satisfaction and work performance
This is an important area of research because job satisfaction is correlated to enhanced job performance, positive work values, high levels of employee motivation, and lower rates of absenteeism, turnover and burnout (Begley and Czajka, 1993; and Tharenou, 1993).
1. Specify the nature, structure, and types of products or services of Apple, and identify two (2) key factors in the organization’s external environment that can affect its success. Provide explanation to support the rationale. Apple Inc. is a well-known computer manufacturer, smartphone and digital devices device maker. Company have made strong roots in the computing market since its beginning ...
Several authors have described that there
is close and vital relations with the job satisfaction and work performance within an organization. The most prominent researchers and authors who have worked on it include- Judge et al. (2001); Schwab and Cummings (1970); Locke (1976); and Iaffaldano and Muchinsky (1985) and all them have agreed that the job satisfaction can influence work performance of the employees within an organization. There are also stronger relationships depending on specific circumstances such as mood and employee level within the company (Morrison, 1997).
Organ (1988) also found that the job performance and job satisfaction relationship follows the social exchange theory; employees’ performance is giving back to the organization from which they get their satisfaction.
Judge et al. (2001) argued that there are seven different models that can be used to describe the job satisfaction and job performance relationship. Some of these models view the relationship between job satisfaction and job performance to be unidirectional, that either job satisfaction causes job performance or vice versa. Another model stated that the relationship is a reciprocal one; this has been supported by the research of Wanous (1974).
The underlying theory of this reciprocal model is that if the satisfaction is extrinsic, then satisfaction leads to performance, but if the satisfaction is intrinsic, then the performance leads to satisfaction. Other models suggest there is either an outside factor that causes a seemingly relationship between the factors or that there is no relationship at all, however, neither of these models have much research.
George and Brief (1996) and Isen and Baron (1991) both founded that job satisfaction can lead better work performance of the employees within an organization. Bishay (1996) postulates that if employees are satisfied with their work they will show greater commitment and thus more better performances within the organization. Conversely, dissatisfied workers with negative attitudes will ultimately leave the organisation. The researcher will try to find the application and implementation any models for the purpose of identifying relationships of job satisfaction with work performance within the case studied organization, JUPEM Negeri Sembilan.
... enhance employee's job satisfaction through various attempts to increase motivation. Several research studies have been done in the field of work motivation and satisfaction and ... 1998: 151). Jobs require interaction and mingling with co-workers and bosses, obeying rules and policies of the organization, meeting performance standards and living ...
This research project is based on the investigation and analysis of the effect of job satisfaction on the employee’s work performance within an organization, such as JUPEM Negeri Sembilan. Based on the case studied organization’s current situations and conditions, it is clear that the organization is commitment to provide excellent and quality services to their clients, customers, visitors and tourists from different parts of the world. So, there is need for the identification and analysis of the employee’s job satisfaction and how does this affecting the work performance within the organization in relation to achieve goals and objectives of the organization.
The primary query of the research is the investigation and analysis of the effect of job satisfaction on the employees’ work performance. Based on the main research question, following research questions can be construct in relation to research aims and objectives- What are the factors that can influence the satisfaction and dissatisfaction of employees in their workplace, such as JUPEM Negeri Sembilan? How the level of performance of employees can be measured based on their job description and job satisfaction? How the organization/company, such as JUPEM Negeri Sembilan can motivates the employees that will enhance work performance by increasing job satisfaction? What are the positive and negative impacts within the organization/company? How the job satisfaction can increase work performance of the employees within the organization/company, such as JUPEM Negeri Sembilan?
1.4Purpose of the Study
The primary aim of this research is to investigate and analyze the effect of job satisfaction on the employee’s work performance. The sub aims in accordance with primary aim include- to identify the factors that influence satisfaction and dissatisfaction of employees; to evaluate the productivity and efficiency of employees’ based on their job satisfaction; and to identify and evaluate how the job satisfaction influence the performance of the employees. The key objectives of this research are as follows-
... job satisfaction and decrease employee turnover. In addition, the research implies that increased work motivators and job satisfaction leads to higher performance levels in employees, greatly benefiting the organization ... or businesses they serve. While a high employee ...
1. To explain the simultaneous effect of the five variables on Job Satisfaction Level at JUPEM Negeri Sembilan. 2. To determine which variables were the dominant influence of the five variables on Job Satisfaction Level at JUPEM Negeri Sembilan.
1.5Scope of the Study
This research project will investigate and analyze the effect of the job satisfaction on the employee’s work performance within an organization, such as JUPEM Negeri Sembilan. Data both primary and secondary has been collected through semi-structured questionnaire survey and document analysis etc. The researcher has made valid conclusions and recommendations base on the research findings where there are several issues and concepts that need further investigation and analysis that can lead future research initiatives. Thus, the researcher would like to opine that this research has created several research scopes in the field of job satisfaction and work performance of the employees within an organization.
1.6Rationale of the Study
According to Yousef (2000), job satisfaction and organizational performance is closely related because if the employees are satisfied then there will be no tardiness, absenteeism and turnover that will improve the work performance and organizational productivity. Moreover, factors that are associated with job satisfaction linked to increase productivity and organizational effectiveness that affect the work performance of the employees (Buitendach and de Witte, 2005).
According to Nimalathasan (2010), the employees who are satisfied with their job can create more effort that will create better organizational performances as well as he or she can provide better performance from him or her. He also described that job satisfaction has two types of role- from organizational perspective and employees’ perspective. The organization has to ensure job satisfaction to achieve organizational goals and objectives. On the other hand, job
satisfaction can provides mental refreshment, good relations with co-workers, good relations with supervisor etc. to the employees within the organization.
Job satisfaction has both positive and negative consequences within the organization. For instance, Hodgetts (1991) has described that the outcomes or consequences of job satisfaction in relation to performance, employee turnover and absenteeism.
Performance: The employees who are satisfied with the job they do better work than the employees who are not satisfied with their job, a research study carried out by (Ostroff, 1992).
As an example (West, 1998) has mentioned in UK job satisfaction has great influence on the work performance of the employees within an organization, such as in retail organization. Employee turnover: Job satisfaction is closely related with employee turnover that can be used to measure the level of efficiency and productivity of the employees and thus the work performance of those employees and Lee and Mowday (1987) stated that the employee who is satisfied he or she wants to stay within the organization compare to employee who is not satisfied with the job.
Absenteeism: There is said to be an inverse relationship between job satisfaction and level of absenteeism- that is, when job satisfaction is low, absenteeism tends to be high (Steel and Rentsch, 1995).
There is opposite argument as well in respect to job satisfaction and level of absenteeism, such as Clegg (1983) has mentioned that there is no guarantee in low levels of absenteeism despite of having high levels of job satisfaction.
Heskett et al. 1997 and Weaver, 1994 have stated that the people who are satisified with the job, they are very productive than those are not satisfied with the job within an organization. According to Reichheld (1996), there are mainly three features by which an organization can explore the role of job satisfaction on the work performance of the employees that include- the feel proud of their jobs, they find very much interests and meanings by doing jobs and after receiving recognition from the colleagues and/or other employees within the organization. All of the features can be termed as to assess the roles of job satisfaction on the work performance of the employees within an organization. Moreover, some other prominent researchers have mentioned that job satisfaction has role to work performance in several ways. For instance, satisfied employees provide a higher level of external service quality, the service experience that customers receive and evaluate, which leads to increased customer satisfaction, stated by Heskett et al. 1997 and Spinelli and Canavos, 2000.
Job satisfaction has one most crucial role within the organization in relation to human resource management (HRM).
The issue of turnover is an important concern for the purpose of human resources management. Several authors have revealed that there is closely a relationship with the job satisfaction and turnover that affect human resources management and thus work performance of the employees within an organization. As an example, Hackman and Oldham (1975) have described that job satisfaction is generally believed a higher job satisfaction is associated with increased productivity, lower absenteeism, and lower employee turnover. Glance et al. (1997) described that employee turnover is positively related with the productivity of the employee. Amah (2009) noted that employee turnover can be reduced through increasing job satisfaction. The satisfied employees are willing to involve in more volunteering within the organization that increase more productivity of them and thus reduce turnover of them.
According to Mudor and Tooksoon (2011), HRM practices in specific internal fit as an ideal set of practices which identify three variables; supervision, job training, and pay practices believed to influence job satisfaction and toward turnover of the employees, as some of the practices of high the performance working system practices by previous HRM researchers such as Bradley et al. (2004).
From the review, it is clear that the job satisfaction has impact on the several issues and concepts such as organizational performance, employee performance, turnover and absenteeism, employee productivity, service quality of employees and human resources management etc. So, there should be initiatives by the researcher to explore and evaluate about the impact of job satisfaction on the above mentioned issues and concepts.
1.7Significance of the Study
Job satisfaction surveys can produce positive, neutral or negative results. If planned properly and administered, they will usually produce a number of important benefits, such as-
1. It gives management an indication of general levels of satisfaction in a company. Surveys also indicate specific areas of satisfaction or dissatisfaction as compared to employee services and particular group of employee. 2. It leads to valuable communication brought by a job satisfaction survey. Communication flow in all direction as people plan the survey, take it and discuss the result. Upward communication is especially fruitful when employee are encouraged to comment about what is on their minds instead of merely answering questions about topics important to management.
3. This survey act as safety value, an emotional release. A chance to things gets off. The survey is an intangible expression of management’s interest in employee welfare, which gives employees a reason to feel better towards management. 4. Job satisfaction surveys are a useful way to determine certain training needs. 5. Job satisfaction surveys are useful for identifying problem that may arise, comparing the response to several alternatives and encouraging manager to modify their original plans. Follow up surveys allows management to evaluate the actual response to a change and study its success or failure.
1.8Limitations of the study
Limitation are as follows-
Data collected is based on questionnaire.
The number of employees in JUPEM Negeri Sembilan is more, so sample size is limited by 100. The information collected by the observation method is very limited. The result would be varying according to the individuals as well as time. Some respondents hesitated to give the actual situation; they feared that management would take any action against them
Work carried out in the government sector is one of the jobs or activities are always carried out repeatedly. Employees faced with the same routine day after day. In conditions such as these employees work extremely susceptible to saturation causing no satisfaction in the work, in addition to financial satisfaction factors, physical, social satisfaction and psychological satisfaction also affects job satisfaction. Lack or loss of motivation also affects the performance. Employees are a valuable corporate asset and if managed properly will yield profits for the company achieving all the goals that have been set. JUPEM Negeri Sembilan should be keen to see things that could lead to job satisfaction of employees, making employees motivated in their work and firm performance increases with employee performance.
“Job satisfaction does not seem to reduce absence, turnover and perhaps accident rates”. -Robert L. Kahn
“Job satisfaction is a general attitude towards one’s job: the difference between the amount of reward workers receive and the amount they believe they should receive.” -P. Robbins
Job satisfaction defines as “The amount of over all positive affect (or feeling) that individuals have toward their jobs.” -Hugh J. Arnold and Daniel C. Feldman
“Job satisfaction is the amount of pleasure or contentment associated with a
Job satisfaction is not the same as motivation. It is more if an attitude, an internal state of the person concerned. It could, for example, be associated with a personal feeling of achievement. Job satisfaction is an individual’s emotional reaction to the job itself. It is his attitude towards his job (Donely, Ivan Cevhic, Gibson, 1989).
2.2Independent Variables of Job Satisfaction
According to Soeprihanto, John. (1988) Job satisfaction is a complex concept and difficult to measure objectively. The level of job satisfaction is affected by a wide range of variables relating to individual factors, social factors, organizational factors, environmental factors and leadership factors as shown below:-
Marital Status and No. of Dependents
Relationship with Co-workers
Nature of Work
Recognition and Rewards
Communication Overload and Communication Underload
Participative Leadership Style
Democratic Leadership Style
Autocratic Leadership Style
Bureaucratic Leadership Style
Individuals have certain expectations from their jobs. If their expectations are met from the jobs, they feel satisfied. These expectations are based on an individual’s level of education, age and other factors. Dessler, Gark, (1999).
Some research suggests an association between personality and job satisfaction. Specifically, this research describes the role of negative affectivity and positive affectivity. Negative affectivity is related strongly to the personality trait of neuroticism. Individuals high in negative affectivity are more prone to experience less job satisfaction. Positive affectivity is related strongly to the personality trait of extraversion. Those high in positive affectivity are more prone to be satisfied in most dimensions of their life, including their job. Differences in affectivity likely impact how individuals will perceive objective job circumstances like pay and working conditions, thus affecting their satisfaction in that job (Brief, A. P., & Weiss, H. M., 2002).
There are two personality factors related to job satisfaction, alienation and locus of control. Employees who have an internal locus of control and feel less alienated are more likely to experience job satisfaction, job involvement and organizational commitment. A meta-analysis of 135 studies of job satisfaction concluded that there is a positive relationship between internal locus of control and job satisfaction. The study also showed characteristics like high self-esteem, self-efficacy and low neuroticism are also related to job satisfaction (Schultz & Schultz, Duane, 2010).
According to Ellickson and Logsdon (2001), the second most commonly investigated source of variation in job satisfaction pertains to the socio-demographic characteristics of the employees themselves. Many researchers also believe that individual attributed serve to moderate the relationship between the environmental factors and job satisfaction. The present study posited that the profile of the employees as moderating variables are equally important with that of the independent variables specifically in testing the variation in job satisfaction. Also, profile of employee’s served as the basis for testing the acceptance and rejection of the hypothesis. The profile includes age, gender, civil status, educational attainment, position, length of stay/service, and service location.
Robbins (1989, p. 51) defines personality as “the sum total of ways in which an individual reacts and interacts with others.” Research indicates that some people are predisposed by virtue of their personality to be more or less satisfied despite the changes to their working environment and other factors (Aamodt, 2004; Johns, 1996).
This idea can apparently be traced back to the Hawthorne studies, which found that certain people were continually complaining about their jobs (Spector, 1996).
No matter what the researchers did, the participants found a reason to complain. They concluded that their dissatisfaction is a product of their personality. Thus one way to increase the overall level of job satisfaction in an organisation is to recruit applicants who show high levels of overall job and life satisfaction (Aamodt, 2004).
Schneider and Dachler (1978) as cited by Spector (1996) also found that job satisfaction seemed stable over time and that it might be the product of personality traits. This view holds some truth in that people with a negative tendency towards life would most likely respond negatively to their jobs even if their jobs changed (Atchison, 1999).
The author further advances that many organisations spend much time trying to turn these “negative” people around. In these cases, the best organisations could do is to keep these individuals from affecting the rest of their employees. On the other hand, people with a positive inclination towards life, would most probably have a positive attitude towards their job as well.
Aamodt (2004), however, notes that findings on the personality-job satisfaction relationship are controversial and have received some criticism, therefore more research is needed before firm conclusions can be drawn. Spector (1997) further indicates that most research on the personality-job satisfaction relationship has only demonstrated that a correlation exists, without offering much theoretical explanations.
Level of education of an individual is a factor which determines the degree of job satisfaction. For example, several studies have found negative correlation between the level of education, particularly higher level of education, and job satisfaction. The possible reason for this phenomenon may be that highly educated persons have very high expectations from their jobs which remain unsatisfied. In their case, Peter’s principle which suggests that every individual tries to reach his level of incompetence, applies more quickly (Dessler, Gark, 1999).
Another study was conducted by Rivera (2003) on the Dimensions of Work Ethics and its Relationship with Job Satisfaction Factors: The Case of NBI, on the overall, clerical and non-clerical employees have expressed a moderate level of satisfaction in their work and that the demographic profile of the respondents such as age, civil status, length of service and nature of work did not significantly influence their job satisfaction as well as the performance. The researcher found out that the higher educational level does not necessarily mean greater job satisfaction. This may be due in part to increase expectations prompted by higher levels of education. Exceptions to this trend may be found at the level of graduate education, especially at the doctoral and post-doctoral levels in medicine and other disciplines. 2.3.3 Gender
More and more women are entering the workforce and it has become important to understand how men and women might differ in their job attitudes. There is a large body of research explaining the gender-job satisfaction relationship. However, research in this regard has been inconsistent. Some literature reports that males are more satisfied than females, others suggest females are more satisfied and some have found no differences in satisfaction levels based on gender.
According to Spector (2000), most studies have found only a few differences in job satisfaction levels amongst males and females. Studies conducted by Loscocco (1990) indicated that female employees demonstrated higher levels of job satisfaction than male employees across different settings. This author purports that most women value rewards that are readily available to them, such as relationships with co-workers. It therefore becomes easier for them to experience job satisfaction. Male employees on the other hand, most likely desire things like autonomy and financial rewards which are not as readily available. This might result in lower levels of job satisfaction.
A study by Alavi and Askaripur (2003) amongst 310 employees in government organizations, found no significant difference in job satisfaction among male and female employees. Carr and Human’s (1988) research is consistent with this view. These authors investigated a sample of 224 employees at a textile plant in the Western Cape and found no significant relationship between gender and satisfaction. Furthermore, Pors (2003) conducted a study including 411 Danish library managers and 237 library managers from the United Kingdom and concluded that there is no overall difference in job satisfaction in relation to gender. A possible explanation is offered by Tolbert and Moen (1998), who maintain that men and women attach value to different aspects of the job. This therefore makes it difficult to measure differences in job satisfaction based on gender.
On the other hand, a study conducted by Okpara (2004) which involved 360 Information Technology managers in Nigeria, indicated that female employees are less satisfied than their male counterparts – specifically with pay, promotion and supervision. According to Okpara (2004), this finding may be attributed to higher educational levels of women in this sample. The author postulates that higher education levels raise expectations about status, pay and promotion and if these expectations are not met, they might experience lower levels of satisfaction.
Individuals experience different degree of job satisfaction at different stages of their life. Job satisfaction is high at the initial stage, gets gradually reduced, starts rising upto certain stage, and finally dips to a low degree. The possible reasons for this phenomenon are like this. When individuals join an organization, they may have some unrealistic assumptions about what they are going to drive from their work. These assumptions make them more satisfied. However, when these assumptions fall short of reality, job satisfaction goes down. It starts rising again as the people start to assess the jobs in right perspective and correct their assumptions. At the last, particularly at the fag end of the career, job satisfaction goes down because of fear of retirement and future outcome (Dessler, Gark, 1999).
While research has yielded mixed evidence on the influence of age on job satisfaction, most studies suggest a positive correlation, that is, older workers tend to be more satisfied with their jobs than younger workers (Okpara, 2004; Rhodes, 1983 as quoted by Kacmar & Ferris, 1989; Saal & Knight, 1988).
Numerous explanations may be presented to explain the positive correlation between age and job satisfaction (Okpara, 2004): Older employees have adjusted to their work over the years, which may lead to higher satisfaction.
Prestige and confidence are likely to increase with age and this could result in older employees being more satisfied. Younger employees may consider them more mobile and seek greener pastures, which could lead to lower satisfaction levels. Younger employees are more likely to hold high expectations of their jobs and if these expectations are not met, they may experience lower satisfaction levels. However, in contrast to this, other studies found that age does not significantly explain the variance in job satisfaction levels (Alavi & Askaripur, 2003; Carr & Human, 1988; Kacmar & Ferris, 1989; Siu, 2002).
2.3.5 Marital Status and No. of Dependents
Research has consistently found that married employees are more satisfied with their jobs than their un-married co-workers (Chambers, 1999; Loscocco, 1990; Robbins et al., 2003).
Chambers (1999) in particular, found that married employees experienced increased satisfaction with pay, work, supervision and co-worker subscales of the JDI. A possible explanation is provided by Robbins (1989).
He purports that marriage imposes increased responsibilities which might make a steady job more valuable, hence increasing their satisfaction. However, Robbins et al. (2003) note that the available research only distinguishes between being single and married. Divorcees, couples who cohabit and the widowed have been excluded from research and these are in need of investigation.
Furthermore, a study by Alavi and Askaripur (2003) reported no significant difference in job satisfaction and its five dimensions among single and married personnel. Researchers are therefore in disagreement concerning the relationship between marital status and job satisfaction.
Robbins (1989) purports that there is strong evidence suggesting a positive relationship in between the number of dependents and job satisfaction. This implies that the higher the number of dependents an employee has, the higher the job satisfaction is likely to be. A possible explanation could be that employees with more children are probably older and longer in their jobs. They might therefore have adapted to their work situations, hence the increase in job satisfaction. Studies by Alavi and Askaripur (2003) amongst employees in government organizations reported no statistically significant relationship between the number of dependents and job satisfaction. Research in this area is, however, limited.
According to Saal and Knight (1988), research suggests that tenure is likely to influence job satisfaction. Literature overwhelmingly indicates a positive correlation between tenure and job satisfaction, that is, employees with longer job experience are more satisfied compared to those with fewer years of experience (Bilgic, 1998 as cited by Okpara, 2004; Jones-Johnson & Johnson, 2000; Staw, 1995).
Okpara (2004) provides an explanation for this positive correlation and advances that employees settle into their jobs over time, which leads to an increase in organizational commitment and job satisfaction. Furthermore, Robbins (1989) maintains that the longer an employee holds a job, the more they tend to be satisfied with the status quo.
Lambert, Hogan, Barton and Lubbock (2001) on the other hand argue that there is an inverse relationship between tenure and job satisfaction. Hence, longer tenured employees are less satisfied than those who have been in the organization for shorter periods. A possible explanation could be that employees, who hold the same jobs over a long period of time, may become bored and experience lower levels of satisfaction.
Another view is provided by Alavi and Askaripur (2003).
The authors conducted a study amongst 310 employees in government organizations and found no significant difference in job satisfaction amongst employees based on their years of service. Research in this regard is thus contradictory.
Mood and emotions form the affective element of job satisfaction. Moods tend to be longer lasting but often weaker states of uncertain origin, while emotions are often more intense, short-lived and have a clear object or cause (Weiss HM, Cropanzano R., 1996).
Some research suggests moods are related to overall job satisfaction (Weiss HM, Nicholas JP, Daus CS., 1999).
Positive and negative emotions were also found to be significantly related to overall job satisfaction (Fisher D., 2000).
Frequency of experiencing net positive emotion will be a better predictor of overall job satisfaction than will intensity of positive emotion when it is experienced (Fisher D., 2000).
Emotion work (or emotion management) refers to various types of efforts to manage emotional states and displays. Emotion management includes all of the conscious and unconscious efforts to increase, maintain, or decrease one or more components of an emotion. Although early studies of the consequences of emotional work emphasized its harmful effects on workers, studies of workers in a variety of occupations suggest that the consequences of emotional work are not uniformly negative (Pugliesi K., 1999).
It was found that suppression of unpleasant emotions decreases job satisfaction and the amplification of pleasant emotions increases job satisfaction (Cote S.,Morgan LM, 2002).
18.104.22.168Emotion regulation model
The understanding of how emotion regulation relates to job satisfaction concerns two models:
22.214.171.124.1Emotional dissonance model.
Emotional dissonance is a state of discrepancy between public displays of emotions and internal experiences of emotions (Ashforth, B. E., & Humphrey, R. H., 1993 & Rafaeli, A., & Sutton, R. I., 1989).
that often follows the process of emotion regulation. Emotional dissonance is associated with high emotional exhaustion, low organizational commitment, and low job satisfaction (Abraham, R., 1999 & Morris, J. A., & Feldman, D. C., 1997).
126.96.36.199.2Social interaction model
Taking the social interaction perspective, workers’ emotion regulation might beget responses from others during interpersonal encounters that subsequently impact their own job satisfaction. For example: The accumulation of favorable responses to displays of pleasant emotions might positively affect job satisfaction (Cote S.,Morgan LM, 2002).
It has been well documented that genetics influence a variety of individual differences (Rowe, D. C., 1987).
Some research suggests genetics also play a role in the intrinsic, direct experiences of job satisfaction like challenge or achievement (as opposed to extrinsic, environmental factors like working conditions).
One experiment used sets of monozygotic twins, reared apart, to test for the existence of genetic influence on job satisfaction. While the results indicate the majority of the variance in job satisfaction was due to environmental factors (70%), genetic influence is still a minor factor. Genetic heritability was also suggested for several of the job characteristics measured in the experiment, such as complexity level, motor skill requirements, and physical demands (Arvey, R. D., Bouchard, T. J., Segal, N. L., & Abraham, L. M., 1989).
2.4.1 Relationship with co-workers
Another dimension which influences job satisfaction is the extent to which co-workers are friendly, competent and supportive (Robbins et al., 2003).
Research indicates that employees who have supportive co-workers will be more satisfied with their jobs (Aamodt, 2004; Robbins, 1989; 2005).
This is mainly because “the work group normally serves as a source of support, comfort, advice and assistance to the individual worker” (Luthans, 1995, p. 127).
Researchers further found that employees observe the levels of satisfaction of other employees and then model these behaviors (Salancik & Pfeffer, 1997 as cited by Aamodt, 2004).
Hence, if an organization’s veteran employees work hard and talk positively about their jobs, new employees will model this behavior and be both productive and satisfied. The reverse can also be true.
Johnston (2000) also cited that job satisfaction and employee retention are directly linked to the quality of an employee’s relationships. Emphatic and available human resource professionals are in a unique position not only empower employees solve personal and professional problems, but, through their interpersonal skills, help their company save thousands of dollars that would otherwise be spent in employment-related legal fees. The trick in dealing with problem employees is not putting a bandage on their boo-boos when they cry, but rather help them learn how to heal their own. Not only this help them mature, it will leave you with the energy at the end of the day to deal with children you want to take care of – the ones at home.
Individuals work in group either created formally of they develop on their own to seek emotional satisfaction at the workplace. To the extent such groups are cohesive; the degree of satisfaction is high. If the group is not cohesive, job satisfaction is low. In a cohesive group, people derive satisfaction out of their interpersonal interaction and workplace becomes satisfying leading to job satisfaction. Robbin, Stephen ,P (1999).
According to Fehr (1996), friendship is “a voluntary, personal relationship typically providing intimacy and assistance” (p. 20).
The definitions of WF, however, are distinct from general types of friendship because workplace friendship is focused on friendship occurred in the workplace (Song, 2005).
Berman et al. (2002) define workplace friendship as “nonexclusive voluntary
workplace relations that involve mutual trust, commitment, reciprocal liking and shared interests and values” (p. 218).
WF is a phenomenon that is beyond mere behaviours engaged in friendly ways among people in an organization; there should be “trust, liking, and shared interests or values” rather than being only mutual acquaintances (Berman et al., 2002, p.218).
Workplace friendship has been considered valuable for both individuals and organizations. According to Fine (1986), WF increases support and resources that help individuals to accomplish their job, reduce work stress, and provide increased communication, cooperation, and energy. Hamilton (2007) also suggested that when in a friendship at work, people might feel comfortable with their workplace friends and reduce feelings of insecurity and uncertainty. They also share more information and empathies with workplace friends about work-related problems and concerns. Jehn and Shah (1997) further argued that employees in a friendship exchange words of encouragement, confidence, trust, respect, and critical feedback, which may increase enthusiasm and a positive attitude.
Based on these functional values of WF, previous empirical research in psychology, sociology, and management commonly revealed that WF can influence employees’ work-related attitudes, intentions, and behaviours such as job satisfaction, OCB, job performance, turnover intention, and absenteeism (Riordan & Griffeth, 1995; Ross, 1997).
Dotan (2007) suggested that when employees have trustful friends at work, they can get help or advice from their friend co-workers and, therefore, gain feelings of security, comfort, and satisfaction with their job at work.
Also, employees in friendship tend to engage in altruistic behaviours by providing co-workers with help, guide, advice, feedback, recommendation, or information on various work-related matters (Hamilton, 2007).
This aspect of WF as a source of work assistance is linked to the altruism dimension of OCB. Research further suggested that WF may enhance organizational performance because employees in friendships like to help each other with tasks, communicate with morale-building behaviours, have few communication difficulties and thus can increase their effort and rate of production
Additionally, research has shown that individuals who have a close friend at work are less likely to be absent or leave the organization than individuals who do not because they gain a sense of belongingness and obligation to the workplace friends who have accepted, understood, and helped them at work (Morrison, 2004; Sias & Cahill, 1998).
Psychological well-being (PWB) is defined as “the overall effectiveness of an individual’s psychological functioning” as related to primary facets of one’s life: work, family, community, etc (Wright, T. A., & Cropanzano, R., 2000).
There are three defining characteristics of PWB. First, it is a phenomenological event, meaning that people are happy when they subjectively believe themselves to be so. Second, well-being involves some emotional conditions. Particularly, psychologically well people are more prone to experience positive emotions and less prone to experience negative emotions. Third, well-being refers to one’s life as a whole. It is a global evaluation (Wright, T. A., & Cropanzano, R., 2000).
PWB is primarily measured using the eight-item Index of Psychological Well-Being developed by Berkman (IPWB).
IPWB asks respondents to reply to a series a questions on how often they felt “pleased about accomplishing something,” “bored,” “depressed or unhappy,” etc (Wright, T. A., & Cropanzano, R., 2000).
Psychological well-being (PWB) in the workplace plays an important role in determining job satisfaction and has attracted much research attention in recent years (Baptiste, N. R., 2008).
These studies have focused on the effects of PWB on job satisfaction as well as job performance (Robertson, I. T., Birch, A. J., & Cooper, C. L., 2012).
One study noted that because job satisfaction is specific to one’s job, the research that examined job satisfaction had not taken into account aspects of one’s life external to the job (Wright, T. A., Cropanzano, R., & Bonett, D. G., 2007).
Prior studies had focused only on the work environment as the main determinant of job satisfaction. Ultimately, to better understand job satisfaction (and its close relative, job performance), it is important to take into account an individual’s PWB. Research published in 2000 showed a significant
correlation between PWB and job satisfaction (r = .35, p < .01) (Wright, T. A., & Cropanzano, R., 2000).
A follow-up study by the same authors in 2007 revealed similar results (r = .30, p < .01) (Wright, T. A., Cropanzano, R., & Bonett, D. G., 2007).
In addition, these studies show that PWB is a better predictor of job performance than job satisfaction alone. 2.5 Organizational Factors
Pay refers to the amount of compensation received for a specific job (Robbins et al., 2003).
Luthans (1995, p. 127) notes that “wages and salaries are recognized to be a significant, but complex, multidimensional predictor of job satisfaction.” According to Spector (1997) and Berkowitz (1987), the correlation between the level of pay and job satisfaction tends to be surprisingly small. This suggests that pay in itself is not a very strong factor influencing job satisfaction.
Berkowitz (1987, p. 545) notes that “there are other considerations, besides the absolute value of one’s earnings that influences attitudes toward satisfaction with pay.”
Spector (1996, p. 226) postulates that “it is the fairness of pay that determines pay satisfaction rather than the actual level of pay itself.” If an employee’s compensation is therefore perceived to be equitable, when compared to another person in a similar position, satisfaction might be the likely result. Atchison (1999) however, points out that an increase in pay only acts as a short-term motivator and management therefore has to look at other ways to increase the levels of job satisfaction.
Wages do play a significant role in determining of satisfaction. Pay is instrumental in fulfilling so many needs. Money facilities the obtaining of food, shelter, and clothing and provides the means to enjoy valued leisure interest outside of work. Moreover, pay can serve as symbol of achievement and a source of recognition. Employees often see pay as a reflection of organization. Fringe benefits have not been found to have strong influence
on job satisfaction as direct wages (Hani T Handoko, 1996).
Pay has long been considered one of the most important organizational rewards because it allows employees to obtain other rewards. Frederick Taylor (1911) was one of the earliest to recognize the motivating effects of pay when he proposed that workers put forth extra effort on the job to maximize their economic gains.
Although this premise lost favor in the late 1920s with the emergence of the human relations school (Wren, 1994), money remains the fundamental way that organizations reward employees. Yet, despite the long-standing importance of pay, the way pay impacts the behavior of employees remains to be explained.
Reinforcement theory and expectancy theory emerged as the earliest theories to shed some light on how pay influences employee behavior. Reinforcement theory (Skinner, 1953) suggests that pay acts as a general reinforcer because of its repeated pairing with primary reinforcers. People learn from life experiences that a primary need, such as food or shelter, can be satisfied if money is obtained. Other theorists suggest that through similar experiences a drive for money itself develops (Dollard & Miller, 1950).
Whether treating pay as a means to an end or as an end itself, reinforcement theory does not provide a clear explanation for how pay acts as an impetus for action. People engage in behaviors because of past experiences, but the process by which past experiences determine an individual’s future behavior remained unclear.
Vroom’s (1964) expectancy theory helped clarify how pay influences future behavior. According to expectancy theory, three components determine motivation: A judgment regarding the likelihood that an effort leads to a certain level of performance (expectancy) A judgment regarding the likelihood that this level of performance leads to a certain outcome (instrumentality) The importance of the outcome to the individual (valence).
Life experience, the key determinant of behaviour as suggested by reinforcement theory, influences the determination of both expectancy and
instrumentality. If an individual has prior experience which leads him or her to believe that a certain level of effort will lead to a given level of performance and that this level of performance will lead to a given outcome, that person will be more likely to engage in that behaviour, if the outcome is desirable (high valence).
Vroom (1964) suggests that pay motivates behaviour only if valued by the employee or if pay allows individuals to obtain some other highly valued outcome.
It was assumed an individual has a general feeling about his or her pay and that this overall feeling is an important determinant of the individual’s attitudes and behaviours (Lawler, 1971).
Equity and discrepancy theories offer insight into how pay satisfaction is determined and suggests possible consequences of pay dissatisfaction.
According to Luthans (1989) revealed that salary is the significant factor in job satisfaction. Money not only helps people attain their basic needs, but it is instrumental in providing upper-level needs satisfaction. Employees often see pay as a reflection of how management views their contribution to the organization.
Leveriza (1995) cited in his book that whether in private business or in the government, the most significant of a job to a worker is the income he derived from it. There, indeed, may be other vital elements of satisfaction attached to the position or the work process itself but generally a worker would not be in his job unless he earns something out of it for his subsistence.
On the other hand, Syptak et.al. (1999) pointed out that old adage “you get what you pay for” tends to be true when it comes to staff members. Salary is not a motivator for employees, but they do not want to be paid fairly. If individuals believe they are not compensated well, they will be unhappy working for you.
Luthans (1989) viewed fringe benefits are also important, but they are not as influential. One reason undoubtedly is that most employees do not even know
how much they are receiving in benefits. Moreover, most tend to undervalue these benefits because they cannot see their practical value.
Zulueta (2002) claims that it is always presumed that happy and satisfied workers in any kind of organization are productive workers. Their attitudes behaviours and job satisfaction are very important to the organization, for the desired goals and objectives to be realized. However, job satisfaction and human behaviour have been association with organizational problems and issues and have been the focal point of deliberate efforts toward improving worker’s performance and productivity. It cannot be denied that any type of connected and related to some of the encouraging outcomes that the managers want.
Jimfrase and his collegues propose that the culture of the workplace is the foundation from which workers develop an assessment of appropriate organizational behavior (Jimfrase & Co,2002).
And their qualitative analysis highlights that the perceived gap between organizational norms and their actual implementations creates a deeply felt discontent for many workers from a number of social groupings.
Harris and Mossholder (1996) point out that organizational culture stands as the center from which all other factors of human resource management derive. It is believed that culture influences individuals’ attitudes concerning outcomes, such as commitment, motivation, morale, and satisfaction. Wallach (1983) has suggested that individual job performance and favorable job outcomes, including job satisfaction, propensity to remain with the organization, and job involvement, depend upon the match between an individual’s characteristics and the organization’s culture.
A study conducted by Jill L. Mckinnon and co in Taiwan (2003) indicates that there is a quite compelling support for the importance of organizational culture in affecting job-satisfaction.
Odom, Boxx, and Dunn (1990), found that the bureaucratic culture neither improves nor distracts an employee’s commitment and satisfaction. They also found that employee attitudes and behaviors are enhanced by an organizational culture that exhibits innovative characteristics. Additionally, they found that employees who work in a supportive environment express more job-satisfaction.
One factor related to job satisfaction is the extent to which employees perceive that they are being treated fairly (Aamodt, 2004).
According to Robbins (1989), employees seek for policies and systems that they perceive to be fair as this will likely result in an increase in job satisfaction.
Johns (1996) distinguishes between distributive fairness and procedural fairness. Distributive fairness is perceived fairness of the actual decisions made in an organisation. If employees perceive that decisions are made in a fair manner, they are likely to express satisfaction with their jobs (Robbins, 2005).
Procedural fairness on the other hand, occurs when the processes to determine work outcomes/decisions are perceived to be reasonable. According to Johns (1996, p. 142), “procedural fairness is particularly relevant to outcomes such as performance evaluations, pay raises, promotions, layoffs and work assignments.” Hence, if the processes used to arrive at for example, promotion decisions are perceived to be fair, it could lead to job satisfaction. Aamodt (2004) states that the relationship between perceptions of justice and job satisfaction is very strong, hence employers should be open about how decisions are made and provide feedback to employees who might not be happy with certain important decisions.
2.5.3Nature of work
Nature of the work itself plays a very major role in determining how satisfied employees are with their jobs. By and large, workers want jobs that are challenging; they do want to be doing mindless jobs day after day. The two most important aspect of the work itself that influence job
satisfaction are variety and control over work methods and work place. In general, job with a moderate amount of variety produce the most job satisfaction. Jobs with too little variety cause workers to feel bored and fatigue. Jobs with too much variety and stimulation cause workers to feel psychologically stressed and ‘burnout’. Hani T Handoko. (1996).
According to Luthans (1995), the content of the work performed by employees is a major predictor of job satisfaction. Not surprisingly, “research is fairly clear that employees, who find their work interesting, are more satisfied and motivated than employees who do not enjoy their jobs” (Gately, 1997 as cited by Aamodt, 2004, p. 326).
Employees tend to prefer jobs which afford them the opportunity to apply their skills and abilities, offer them variety and freedom as well as jobs where they get constant feedback on how well they are doing (Robbins, 2005).
Hence, it is important for managers to take innovative steps to make work more interesting in order to increase the levels of job satisfaction of employees.
Furthermore, if a job is highly motivating, employees are likely to be satisfied with the job content and deliver higher quality work, which in turn could lead to lower rates of absenteeism (Friday & Friday, 2003).
Fox (1994) as cited by Connolly and Myers (2003, p. 152) however, advances a contradictory view and maintain that “as workers become more removed from the ability to make meaning through work, the opportunity to experience job satisfaction becomes more difficult.” This stems from the fact that job satisfaction is related to a myriad of factors, including physical, psychological and demographic variables, which are unrelated to the workplace. Nature of job determines job satisfaction which is in the form of occupation level and job content.
188.8.131.52 Occupation level
Higher level jobs provide more satisfaction as compared to lower levels. This happens because high level jobs carry prestige and status in the society which itself becomes source of satisfaction for the job holders. For example, professionals derive more satisfaction as compared to salaried
people: factory workers are least satisfied. Luthans, Fred. (2006).
Oshagbemi (1997) highlights the fact that relatively few studies have attempted to investigate the relationship between employees’ job level and corresponding levels of job satisfaction. However, according to Mowday, Porter and Steers (1982) and Saal and Knight (1988), the limited research available suggests that people who hold higher level jobs are more satisfied than those who hold lower level positions. Several other researchers also found support for a positive correlation between job level and satisfaction.
Smither (1998) states that job satisfaction tends to be lower among employees in jobs characterized by hot or dangerous conditions, which is normally of a lower level nature. Furthermore, Miles, Patrick and King (1996) found that job levels moderates the communication-job satisfaction relationship. It is possible that the more challenging, complex nature of higher-level jobs lead to higher job satisfaction. Also, employees in professional and managerial jobs are normally paid more, have better promotion prospects, autonomy and responsibility which might also increase the levels of job satisfaction (Saal & Knight, 1988).
It seems therefore that job level is a reliable predictor of job satisfaction; more specifically employees in higher level jobs have greater satisfaction than lower level employees.
184.108.40.206 Job content
Job content refers to the intrinsic value of the job which depends on the requirement of skills for performing it, and the degree of responsibility and growth it offers. A higher content of these factors provides higher satisfaction. For example, a routine and repetitive lesser satisfaction; the degree of satisfaction progressively increases in job rotation, job enlargement, and job enrichment. Luthans, Fred. (2006).
According to Friday and Friday (2003), satisfaction with promotion assesses employees’ attitudes toward the organization’s promotion policies and
practices. In addition to this, Bajpai and Srivastava (2004) postulate that promotion provides employees with opportunities for personal growth, more responsibilities and also increased social status. Robbins (1989) maintains that employees seek promotion policies and practices that they perceive to be fair and unambiguous and in line with their expectations. Research indicates that employees who perceive that promotion decisions are made in a fair and just manner are most likely to experience job satisfaction.
The type of supervision affects job satisfaction as in each type of supervision; the degree of importance attached to individuals varies. In employee-oriented supervision, there is more concern for people which is perceived favourably by them and provides them more satisfaction. In job oriented supervision, there is more emphasis on the performance of the job and people become secondary. This situation decreases job satisfaction. Luthans, Fred. (2006).
Two dimensions of supervisor style:
Employee centred or consideration supervisors who establish a supportive personal relationship with subordinates and take a personal interest in them. The other dimension of supervisory style influence participation in decision making, employee who participates in decision that affect their job, display a much higher level of satisfaction with supervisor an the overall work situation (Hani T Handoko, 1996).
2.5.5 Recognition and Rewards
According to Friday and Friday (2003), satisfaction with promotion assesses employees’ attitudes toward the organization’s promotion policies and practices. In addition to this, Bajpai and Srivastava (2004) postulate that promotion provides employees with opportunities for personal growth, more responsibilities and also increased social status. Robbins (1989) maintains that employees seek promotion policies and practices that they perceive to be fair and unambiguous and in line with their expectations. Research indicates that employees who perceive that promotion decisions are made in a fair and just manner are most likely to experience job satisfaction.
A Watson Wyatt Worldwide study identified a positive outcome between a collegical and flexible work environment and an increase in shareholder value. Suggesting that employee satisfaction is directly related to financial gain. Over 40 percent of the companies listed in the top 100 of Fortune magazine’s, “America’s Best Companies to Work For” also appear on the Fortune 500. It is possible that successful workers enjoy working at successful companies, however, the Watson Wyatt Worldwide Human Capital Index study claims that effective human resources practices, such as employee recognition programs, lead to positive financial outcomes more often than positive financial outcomes lead to good practices.
Employee recognition is not only about gifts and points. It’s about changing the corporate culture in order to meet goals and initiatives and most importantly to connect employees to the company’s core values and beliefs. Strategic employee recognition is seen as the most important program not only to improve employee retention and motivation but also to positively influence the financial situation (Insight Magazine, January 2013).
The difference between the traditional approach (gifts and points) and strategic recognition is the ability to serve as a serious business influencer that can advance a company’s strategic objectives in a measurable way. “The vast majority of companies want to be innovative, coming up with new products, business models and better ways of doing things. However, innovation is not so easy to achieve. A CEO cannot just order it, and so it will be. You have to carefully manage an organization so that, over time, innovations will emerge” (Forbes, May 2011).
The type of linkage that is provided between job performance and rewards determines the degree of job satisfaction. If the reward is perceived to be based on the job performance and equitable, it offers higher satisfaction. If the reward is perceived to be based on considerations other than the job performance, it affects job satisfaction adversely. Luthans, Fred. (2006).
Promotional opportunities have a moderate impact on job satisfaction. A promotion to a higher level in an organization typically involves positive
changes I supervision, job content and pay. Jobs that are at the higher level of an organization usually provide workers with more freedom, more challenging work assignments and high salary. Hani T Handoko. (1996).
2.6 Environmental Factors
Working conditions refers to the working environment and all existing circumstances affecting labour in the workplace, including job hours, physical aspects, legal rights and responsibilities. For example, Congress has explained that the purpose of the federal Occupational Safety and Health Act, which IOSHA implements in Indiana, is “to assure so far as possible every working man and woman in the Nation safe and healthful working conditions” (29 USCS § 651; LTV Steel Co. v. Griffin, 730 N.E.2d 1251, 1261, Ind. 2000).
In the context of machines or equipment’s, working condition means it is operational. For example, once the State introduced prima facie evidence that the machine was in proper working condition, the burden of production shifted to Mullins to rebut the State’s prima facie showing.
Working conditions is an extrinsic factor that has a moderate impact on an employee’s job satisfaction (Luthans, 1995).
Working conditions refer to such aspects as temperature, lighting, noise and ventilation. Robbins (1989) stated that employees are concerned with their work environment for both personal comfort and for facilitating good job performance. Studies have demonstrated that employees prefer physical surroundings that are safe, clean, comfortable and with a minimum degree of distractions (Robbins, 2005).
According to Spector (1997), research has shown that employees, who perceive high levels of constraints in terms of their work environment, tend to be dissatisfied with their jobs. Contradictory literature, however, indicates that “most people do not give working conditions a great deal of thought unless they are extremely bad” (Luthans, 1995, p. 128).
The employees desire good working condition because they lead to greater physical comfort. The working conditions are important to employees because
they can influence life outside of work. If people are require to work long hours and / or overtime, they will have very little felt for their families, friends and recreation outside work. Hani T Handoko. (1996).
Working conditions, particularly physical work environment, like conditions of workplace and associated facilities for performing the job determine job satisfaction. These work in two ways. First, these provide means job performance. Second, provision of these conditions affects the individual’s perception about the organization. If these factors are favourable, individuals experience higher level of job satisfaction. Luthans, Fred. (2006).
According to Luthans (1999) said that working conditions are another factor that have a modest effect on job satisfaction. If the working conditions are good (clean, attractive surroundings, for instance), the personnel will find it easier to carry on their jobs. If the working conditions are poor (hot, noisy surroundings, for example) the personnel will find it more difficult to get things done.
Syptak, et.al. (1999) stated that the environment in which people work has a tremendous effect on their level of pride for themselves and for the work they are doing.
Also, Bell et.al. (1996), made mentioned that in general, employees do list physical conditions as important as job satisfaction. In addition to productivity, managers and others have become concerned with that design of the work environment can influence job satisfaction. The authors also mentioned that, work environment can be designed to maximize productivity through facilitating workflow and providing safe and healthy working conditions.
2.6.2 Communication overload and communication underload
One of the most important aspects of an individual’s work in a modern organization concerns the management of communication demands that he or she
encounters on the job (Krayer, K.J., & Westbrook, L., 1986).
Demands can be characterized as a communication load, which refers to “the rate and complexity of communication inputs an individual must process in a particular time frame” (Farace, R. V., Monge, P. R., & Russell, H. M., 1977).
Individuals in an organization can experience communication over-load and communication under- load which can affect their level of job satisfaction.
Communication overload can occur when “an individual receives too many messages in a short period of time which can result in unprocessed information or when an individual faces more complex messages that are more difficult to process” (Farace, R. V., Monge, P. R., & Russell, H. M., 1977).
Due to this process, “given an individual’s style of work and motivation to complete a task, when more inputs exist than outputs, the individual perceives a condition of overload (Krayer, K.J., & Westbrook, L., 1986) which can be positively or negatively related to job satisfaction. In comparison, communication under load can occur when messages or inputs are sent below the individual’s ability to process them” (Farace, R. V., Monge, P. R., & Russell, H. M., 1977).
According to the ideas of communication over-load and under-load, if an individual does not receive enough input on the job or is unsuccessful in processing these inputs, the individual is more likely to become dissatisfied, aggravated, and unhappy with their work which leads to a low level of job satisfaction.
Figure 2.0: Example of organizational communication flow
2.6.3 Superior-subordinate communication
Superior-subordinate communication is an important influence on job satisfaction in the workplace. The way in which subordinates perceive a supervisor’s behaviour can positively or negatively influence job satisfaction. Communication behaviour such as facial expression, eye contact, vocal expression, and body movement is crucial to the superior-subordinate relationship (Teven, p. 156).
Nonverbal messages play a central role in interpersonal interactions with respect to impression formation, deception, attraction, social influence, and emotional (Burgoon, J.K. Buller, D.B. and Woodall, W.G., 1996).
Nonverbal immediacy from the
supervisor helps to increase interpersonal involvement with their subordinates impacting job satisfaction.
The manner in which supervisors communicate with their subordinates non-verbally may be more important than the verbal content (Teven, p. 156).
Individuals who dislike and think negatively about their supervisor are less willing to communicate or have motivation to work whereas individuals who like and think positively of their supervisor are more likely to communicate and are satisfied with their job and work environment. A supervisor who uses nonverbal immediacy, friendliness, and open communication lines is more likely to receive positive feedback and high job satisfaction from a subordinate. Conversely, a supervisor who is antisocial, unfriendly, and unwilling to communicate will naturally receive negative feedback and create low job satisfaction in their subordinates in the workplace.
2.7 Leadership Factors
Leadership styles range widely from a job-or task-centered orientation to a people or relationship-centered one, with many other combinations. A participative style has special merit for consideration. A supervisor uses in trying to direct, activate or otherwise provide a motivational atmosphere for employees. It includes leadership traits skills attitudes and behaviour that employees perceive their supervisor to have and consistently use.
According to John W. Newstorm (2001) study guide stated that leadership is one in which the leader sets goals, makes decisions, gives orders and demands obedience, autocratic style of leadership. A democratic or consultative style is one in which the leader presents problems, consults with relevant individuals or solicits ideas from those with expertise and interest before making decisions. It is highly consistent with the need to employees and assumptions of Theory Y. True participation gives one or more employees the right to explore problems, gather information, make decisions, and implement them.
Figure 4.8: I felt more dissatisfied with the tasks assigned by the company to me.
Referred to Figure 4.8, 70 out of 100 respondents (70%) disagree that they felt more dissatisfied with the tasks assigned by the company to them, 13 out of 100 respondents (13%) agree that they felt more dissatisfied with the tasks assigned by the company to them, 2 out of 100 respondents (2%) not sure whether they felt more satisfied or dissatisfied with the tasks assigned by the company to them, 10 out of 100 respondents (10%) strongly disagree that they felt more dissatisfied with the tasks assigned by the company to them and 5 out of 100 respondents (5%) strongly agree that they felt more dissatisfied with the tasks assigned by the company to them.
Figure 4.9: I felt more dissatisfied with the salary I receive when compared to my work loads.
Referred to Figure 4.9, 5 out of 100 respondents (5%) strongly disagreed, 54 out of 100 respondents (54%) disagreed, 4 out of 100 respondents (4%) not sure, 35 out of 100 respondents (35%) agreed and 2 out of 100 respondents (2%) strongly agree that they felt more dissatisfied with the salary they receive when compared to their work loads.
4. Level of togetherness among co-workers would please me.
Figure 4.10: Level of togetherness among co-workers would please me.
Referred to Figure 4.10, 2 out of 100 respondents (2%) strongly disagree that the level of togetherness among co-workers would please them, 6 out of 100 respondents (6%) disagree that the level of togetherness among co-workers would please them, 3 out of 100 respondents (3%) not sure whether the level of togetherness among co-workers would please them or not, 64 out of 100 respondents (64%) agree that the level of togetherness among co-workers would please them and 25 out of 100 respondents (25%) strongly agree that the level of togetherness among co-workers would please them.
5. I feel more satisfied with the independence to make decisions in my work.
Figure 4.11: I feel more satisfied with the independence to make decisions in my work.
Referred to Figure 4.11, 3 out of 100 respondents (3%) strongly disagreed, 73 out of 100 respondents (73%) disagreed, 11 out of 100 respondents (11%) not sure, 9 out of 100 respondents (9%) agreed and 4 out of 100 respondents (4%) strongly agree that they felt more satisfied with the independence to make decisions in their work.
6. I feel more satisfied because it can use my own method in the works.
Figure 4.12: I feel more satisfied because it can use my own method in the works.
Referred to Figure 4.12, 7 out of 100 respondents (7%) strongly disagree that they felt more satisfied because they can use their own method in the works, 74 out of 100 respondents (74%) disagree that they felt more satisfied because they can use their own method in the works, 13 out of 100 respondents (13%) not sure whether they felt more satisfied or dissatisfied because they can use their own method in the works, 4 out of 100 respondents (4%) agree that they felt more satisfied because they can use their own method in the works and 2 out of 100 respondents (2%) strongly agree that they felt more satisfied because they can use their own method in the works.
7. I feel more satisfied with the condition of my neighbourhood.
Figure 4.13: I feel more satisfied with the condition of my neighbourhood.
Referred to Figure 4.13, 7 out of 100 respondents (7%) strongly disagree that they felt more satisfied with the condition of their neighbourhood, 10 out of 100 respondents (10%) disagree that they felt more satisfied with the condition of their neighbourhood, 5 out of 100 respondents (5%) not sure whether they felt more satisfied or dissatisfied with the condition of their neighbourhood, 70 out of 100 respondents (70%) agree that they felt more satisfied with the condition of their neighbourhood and 8 out of 100 respondents (8%) strongly agree that they felt more satisfied with the
condition of their neighbourhood.
8. I feel more satisfied because doing something that does not conflict with the values that I possess.
Figure 4.14: I feel more satisfied because doing something that does not conflict with the values that I possess.
Referred to Figure 4.14, 9 out of 100 respondents (9%) not sure whether they felt more satisfied or dissatisfied because doing something that does not
conflict with the values that they possess, 73 out of 100 respondents (73%) agree that they felt more satisfied because doing something that does not conflict with the values that they possess and 18 out of 100 respondents (18%) strongly agree that they felt more satisfied because doing something that does not conflict with the values that they possess. 9. I feel more satisfied with the award because I perform the task well.
Figure 4.15: I feel more satisfied with the award because I perform the task well.
Referred to Figure 4.15, 5 out of 100 respondents (5%) strongly disagree that they felt more satisfied with the award because they perform the task well, 63 out of 100 respondents (63%) disagree that they felt more satisfied with the award because they perform the task well, 14 out of 100 respondents (14%) not sure whether they felt more satisfied or dissatisfied with the award because they perform the task well, 10 out of 100 respondents (10%) agree that they felt more satisfied with the award because they perform the task well and 8 out of 100 respondents (8%) strongly agree that they felt more satisfied with the award because they perform the task well.
10. I feel more satisfied with the way the company has a policy that applies.
Figure 4.16: I feel more satisfied with the way the company has a policy that applies.
Referred to Figure 4.16, 5 out of 100 respondents (5%) strongly disagree that they felt more satisfied with the way the company has a policy that applies, 9 out of 100 respondents (9%) disagree that they felt more satisfied with the way the company has a policy that applies, 5 out of 100 respondents (5%) not sure whether they felt more satisfied or dissatisfied with the way the company has a policy that applies, 58 out of 100 respondents (58%) agree that they felt more satisfied with the way the company has a policy that applies and 23 out of 100 respondents (23%) strongly agree that they felt more satisfied with the way the company has a policy that applies. 11. I feel I have wider opportunities for growing with proper training and development program.
Figure 4.17: I feel I have wider opportunities for growing with proper training and development program.
Referred to Figure 4.17, 7 out of 100 respondents (7%) disagreed, 11 out of 100 respondents (11%) not sure, 69 out of 100 respondents (69%) agree that they have wider opportunities for growing with proper training and development program and 13 out of 100 respondents (13%) strongly agree that they have wider opportunities for growing with proper training and development program.
12. I feel more satisfied with my employer’s leadership style in addressing issues faced by employees.
Figure 4.18: I feel more satisfied with my employer’s leadership style in addressing issues faced by employees.
Referred to Figure 4.18, 2 out of 100 respondents (2%) disagreed, 10 out of 100 respondents (10%) not sure, 76 out of 100 respondents (76%) agreed and 12 out of 100 respondents (12%) strongly agree that they felt more satisfied with their employer’s leadership style in addressing issues faced by employees.
13. The working relationship between superiors and subordinates well and not rigid, so there is a sense of belonging.
Figure 4.19: The working relationship between superiors and subordinates well and not rigid, so there is a sense of belonging.
Referred to Figure 4.19, 7 out of 100 respondents (7%) strongly disagreed, 21 out of 100 respondents (21%) disagreed, 15 out of 100 respondents (15%) not sure, 54 out of 100 respondents (54%) agree that the working relationship between superiors and subordinates well and not rigid, so there is a sense of belonging and 3 out of 100 respondents (3%) strongly agree that the working relationship between superiors and subordinates well and not rigid, so there is a sense of belonging.
14. The Company is very concerned with the welfare of its employees.
Figure 4.20: The Company is very concerned with the welfare of its employees.
Referred to Figure 4.20, 9 out of 100 respondents (9%) strongly disagree that the Company is very concerned with the welfare of its employees, 12 out of 100 respondents (12%) disagree that the Company is very concerned with the welfare of its employees, 4 out of 100 respondents (4%) not sure whether the Company is very concerned with the welfare of its employees or not, 68 out of 100 respondents (68%) agree that the Company is very concerned with the welfare of its employees and 7 out of 100 respondents (7%) strongly agree that the Company is very concerned with the welfare of its employees.
15. My working environment is good in order to complete my task peacefully.
Figure 4.21: My working environment is good in order to complete my task peacefully.
Referred to Figure 4.21, 3 out of 100 respondents (3%) disagree that their working environment is good in order to complete their task peacefully, 7 out of 100 respondents (7%) not sure whether their working environment is good in order to complete their task peacefully or not, 88 out of 100 respondents (88%) agree that their working environment is good in order to complete their task peacefully and 2 out of 100 respondents (2%) strongly agree that their working environment is good in order to complete their task peacefully.
16. My work place is contains adequate equipment to support job task.
Figure 4.22: My work place is contains adequate equipment to support job task.
Referred to Figure 4.22, 1 out of 100 respondents (1%) disagree that their work place is contains adequate equipment to support job task, 6 out of 100 respondents (6%) not sure whether their work place is contains adequate equipment to support job task or not, 83 out of 100 respondents (83%) agree that their work place is contains adequate equipment to support job task and 10 out of 100 respondents (10%) strongly agree that their work place is contains adequate equipment to support job task.
17. My boss always gives me compliments when I complete my task successfully.
Figure 4.23: My boss always gives me compliments when I complete my task successfully.
Referred to Figure 4.23, 10 out of 100 respondents (10%) strongly disagreed, 18 out of 100 respondents (18%) disagreed, 3 out of 100 respondents (3%) not sure whether their boss always gives them compliments when they complete the task successfully or not, 61 out of 100 respondents (61%) agree that their boss always gives them compliments when they complete the task successfully and 8 out of 100 respondents (8%) strongly agree that their boss always gives them compliments when they complete the task successfully.
18. Co-workers are always ready to provide assistance if there are difficulties in doing the job.
Figure 4.24: Co-workers are always ready to provide assistance if there are difficulties in doing the job.
Referred to Figure 4.24, 3 out of 100 respondents (3%) strongly disagreed, 11 out of 100 respondents (11%) disagreed, 8 out of 100 respondents (8%) not sure whether their co-workers are always ready to provide assistance if there are difficulties in doing the job or not, 73 out of 100 respondents (73%) agree that their co-workers are always ready to provide assistance if there are difficulties in doing the job and 5 out of 100 respondents (5%)
strongly agree that their co-workers are always ready to provide assistance if there are difficulties in doing the job. 19. I feel comfortable with the supervision of the supervisor.
Figure 4.25: I feel comfortable with the supervision of the supervisor.
Referred to Figure 4.25, 11 out of 100 respondents (11%) strongly disagree that they felt comfortable with the supervision of the supervisor, 58 out of 100 respondents (58%) disagree that they felt comfortable with the supervision of the supervisor, 21 out of 100 respondents (21%) agree that they felt comfortable with the supervision of the supervisor and 10 out of
100 respondents (10%) strongly agree that they felt comfortable with the supervision of the supervisor.
20. The argument presented by the subordinate will be judged positively by boss.
Figure 4.26: The argument presented by the subordinate will be judged positively by boss.
Referred to Figure 4.26, 2 out of 100 respondents (2%) strongly disagreed, 9
out of 100 respondents (9%) disagreed, 5 out of 100 respondents (5%) not sure whether the argument presented by the subordinate will be judged positively by boss or not, 71 out of 100 respondents (71%) agree that the argument presented by the subordinate will be judged positively by boss and 13 out of 100 respondents (13%) strongly agree that the argument presented by the subordinate will be judged positively by boss. 4.2.2Quantitative Findings
As the questionnaire were distributed and collected on the same day, 100 out of 100 questionnaires were collected back after the survey was carried out. The response rate was 100% and quantitative finding divided into five categories in order to match with five independent variables.
Career development is an opportunity for employees to continually take part in more advanced or diverse activities (e.g., training, networking) that result in improving skills, gaining new skills, taking greater responsibility at work, improving their status and earning higher income. Employees rated only one of the factors in the career development category ”opportunities to use skills and abilities” in the top five very important contributors to job satisfaction.
1. Opportunities to Use Skills and Abilities
63 out of 100 respondents (63%) agree that they felt more satisfied with their ability to finish the job, 26 out of 100 respondents (26%) strongly agree that they felt more satisfied with their ability to finish the job (see Figure 4.7).
This is the highest that this category has been since 2004, when it was first added to the list of aspects important to employee job satisfaction.
Almost 89% of employees indicated satisfaction (somewhat and very satisfied) with this aspect. It is generally thought that employees feel good about their jobs when they are using their skills and abilities and contributing to the organization. Among employee demographics, opportunities to use skills and abilities rank at the top for employees with two years of tenure or less and six to 10 years of tenure (see Figure 4.3), employees aged 30 or younger (see Figure 4.0), and male employees (see Figure 4.1).
This element of job satisfaction appeared to be especially important to employees with college education compared with employees without college education (see Figure 4.2).
2. Career Development Opportunities
Through on-the-job learning experiences, cross-training opportunities, stretch goals and other mechanisms to use skills beyond what is required by their position, employees can enhance their skills and competencies. These prospects help employees determine the next step in their career, either within or outside the organization. 69 out of 100 respondents (69%) agree that they have wider opportunities for growing with proper training and development program and 13 out of 100 respondents (13%) strongly agree that they have wider opportunities for growing with proper training and development program (see Figure 4.17).
Career development was a higher priority for employees in large organizations (500 to 2,499 employees) compared with employees in smaller organizations (fewer than 500 employees).
220.127.116.11Employee Relationship with Management
The relationship an employee has with his or her supervisor is a central element to the employee’s affiliation with the organization, and it has been argued that many employee behaviours are largely a function of the way they are managed by their supervisors. One of the components of a good relationship is effective communication. When there are open lines of communication (e.g., encouraging an open-door policy), supervisors can respond more effectively to the needs and problems of their employees. Effective communication from senior management can provide the workforce with direction. In addition, management’s recognition of employees’ performance through praise (private or public), awards and incentives is a cost-effective way of increasing employee morale, productivity and competitiveness.
1. Relationship with Immediate Supervisor
Employees rated their relationship with their immediate supervisor as more important to their job satisfaction than benefits and compensation. The relationship employees have with their supervisors is directly connected to their success and growth at work. Supervisors who develop a positive relationship with employees may be more likely to learn their employees’ strengths and weaknesses, making it easier for supervisors to use the benefits of their employees’ talents for the good of the organization. Employees who have positive supported may be more likely to go above and beyond what is required of them.
They also may share with their supervisor job-related problems or even personal problems, which can be barriers to employee productivity. It is important that supervisors set clear expectations and provide feedback about work performance so as to avoid any potential frustrations or issues. 21 out of 100 respondents (21%) agree and 10 out of 100 respondents (10%) strongly agree that they felt comfortable with the supervision of the supervisor (see Figure 4.25).
2. Communication between Employees and Senior Management
Effective communication from senior management, especially during times of uncertainty, can provide the workforce with direction. 54 out of 100 respondents (54%) agree that the working relationship between superiors and subordinates well and not rigid, so there is a sense of belonging and 3 out of 100 respondents (3%) strongly agree that the working relationship between superiors and subordinates well and not rigid, so there is a sense of belonging (see Figure 4.19).
Frequently, employees are concerned about the repercussions of bringing forth suggestions and concerns to management. Employees need to be encouraged to do so without fear of retaliation. Organizations use different methods to encourage feedback and communication from employees to senior management, such as employee attitude surveys, focus groups and suggestion boxes. There were no significant differences among employee demographic categories. Only 57% of employees indicated that they were satisfied with communication
between employees and senior management.
3. Autonomy and Independence
Slightly about quarter 9 out of 100 respondents (9%) agreed and 4 out of 100 respondents (4%) strongly agree that they felt more satisfied with the independence to make decisions in their work. (see Figure 4.11).
Providing employees with increased freedom, flexibility and discretion to make decisions on the job (e.g., scheduling the work and determining how it is to be done) can give them a greater sense of responsibility for the outcomes of their work. 4 out of 100 respondents (4%) agree and 2 out of 100 respondents (2%) strongly agree that they felt more satisfied because they can use their own method in the works. There were differences in this category by employee education, organization staff size and job level. Employees with some college education perceived this aspect as more important than did employees with only high school education (see Figure 4.2).
This aspect was more important to employees in medium-staff-sized organizations (500 to 2,499 employees) compared with employees in smaller (100 to 499 employees) and larger (2,500 to 24,999 employees) organizations.
4. Management’s Recognition of Employee Job Performance
Acknowledging employees’ performance through praise (private or public), awards and incentives is believed to be a cost-effective way of increasing employee morale, productivity and competitiveness. Recognition should not focus only on monetary recognition; sincere acknowledgement of a job well done also goes a long way. However, when employees were asked about the importance of management’s recognition of employee job performance in relation to job satisfaction, almost quarter 10 out of 100 respondents (10%) agree and 8 out of 100 respondents (8%) strongly agree that they felt more satisfied with the award because they perform the task well (see Figure 4.15).
Employees may feel more committed to their organization if they believe that their efforts are valued, especially during turbulent times. More than half
61 out of 100 respondents (61%) agree and 8 out of 100 respondents (8%) strongly agree that their boss always gives them compliments when they complete the task successfully (see Figure 4.23).
Employees who have been with the organization between 11 and 20 years were more likely to connect this factor to their overall job satisfaction compared with more tenured (21 or more years) employees (see Figure 4.15).
To attract the best employees, companies must research the market in their area as well as their industry to ensure that their salaries and benefits match up against their competitors. Effective compensation program also ensures that pay levels are equitable internally. Benefits for employees can include a wide array of perks and other offerings; however, of primary importance to many employees are health care, paid time off, retirement and family-friendly benefits.
Compensation has consistently remained one of the top five job satisfaction factors most important to employees. Referred to Figure 4.4, 1 out of 100 respondents (1%) were getting salary below RM 1000, 8 out of 100 respondents (8%) were getting salary from RM 1001 to RM 2000, 11 out of 100 respondents (11%) were getting salary from RM 2001 to RM 3000, 63 out of 100 respondents (63%) were getting salary from RM 3001 to RM 4000, 15 out of 100 respondents (15%) were getting salary from RM 4001 to RM 5000 and 2 out of 100 respondents (2%) were getting salary above RM 5001.
Although employees still value being paid well, more important to employees this year were stability in their job and their organization’s finances as well as better relationship with management. Differences emerged among employee demographics. Newly hired employees (see Figure 4.3) were more likely to connect this factor to their overall job satisfaction compared with more tenured (16 or more years) employees. 35 out of 100 respondents (35%) agreed and 2 out of 100 respondents (2%) strongly agree that they felt more dissatisfied with the salary they receive when compared to their workloads (see Figure 4.9).
More over the satisfaction of salary is also affected by the education level of employee (see Figure 4.2), tenure (see Figure 4.3) and no of dependents (see Figure 4.6).
Employers understand that employees spend a fair amount of their time at work and take steps to ensure the work environment is conducive for employees to be productive and satisfied at work. Employees ranked three aspects from the work environment category in the top five contributors important to employee job satisfaction.
1. Relationships with Co-workers
Employees’ relationships with co-workers are important to their success at work. Building allies across the organization helps employees accomplish their work goals and their organization’s goals. Forming positive relationships at work may make the workplace and work more enjoyable and increase job satisfaction. 64 out of 100 respondents (64%) agree and 25 out of 100 respondents (25%) strongly agree that the level of togetherness among co-workers would please them (see Figure 4.10).
Besides that, 73 out of 100 respondents (73%) agree and 5 out of 100 respondents (5%) strongly agree that their co-workers are always ready to provide assistance if there are difficulties in doing the job (see Figure 4.24).
2. Working conditions
88 out of 100 respondents (88%) agree that their working environment is good in order to complete their task peacefully and 2 out of 100 respondents (2%) strongly agree that their working environment is good in order to complete their task peacefully (see Figure 4.21).
Nevertheless, 83 out of 100 respondents (83%) agree and 10 out of 100 respondents (10%) strongly agree that their work place is contains adequate equipment to support job task (see figure 4.22).
Chapter 4 of this dissertation discussed about the presentation of data and analyses related to the study. The quantitative research method were used to conduct this study, analyses has been done by random questionnaire distribution. Furthermore all questions were counted, analysed and presented in pie chart view for better understanding. In addition, the findings have showed the level of job satisfaction level among JUPEM Negeri Sembilan employees and narrowed down the factors contributing to Job Satisfaction level.
CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
The final chapter of the dissertation is known as conclusions and recommendations chapter where the researcher has to provide key summary of the research findings from different sources- tertiary, secondary and primary source as well as cost-effective and constructive recommendations for the academic and organizational perspective. There are other major parts within the chapter include- self-reflection on research project, future research initiatives and opportunities, and overall study outline of all chapters (e.g. chapter 1 to chapter 5).
Thus, the author would like to mention that this chapter will be able to cover all relevant issues and concepts regarding conclusions and recommendations of the research project in respect to the investigation and evaluation of the level of job satisfaction of the employee’s work performance at JUPEM Negeri Sembilan. Finally, the researcher will provide summary of the outline of all the chapters at the end of this chapter.
The researcher has collected and gathered various data and information from
different sources, such as i. critical review of literatures, including books, articles, journals and other relevant sources; ii. Primary data through semi-structured questionnaire survey with general employees of the case studied organization; and iii. Secondary data from document review and analysis of the case studied organization, JUPEM Negeri Sembilan.
The researcher has divided key summary of the research findings into two parts- key summary of the findings from literature review and key summary of the findings from primary and secondary data. The key summary of the research findings can be shown as follows-
5.2.1 Key summary of the findings from literature review
The key summary of the findings from the literature review can be represent as follows- Several authors and researchers have identified different factors that can influence job satisfaction and thus work performance of the employees within an organization. Based on their discussion and explanation, the major factors include- the relationships between supervisor(s) and with other employees; the working environment and its surrounding conditions; the degree of empowerment and power delegation; several needs and demands of the employees; and motivators & hygiene factors and other related factors; As the job satisfaction is a subjective approach within the employees, so most authors and researchers have agreed that there is no particular system to measure level of job satisfaction.
However, there is system tools and techniques that can apply within the organization and these include- personal feelings of employee about job and other aspects; the use of rating scales; psychometric tools; job description index; and identification of benefits to employers and employees etc.; To measure the work performance within an organization, the following approach can be adopt and implement- quality and quantity measure; cost-effectiveness; timeliness; creativity; appraisal by peers, supervisors and self-appraisal; measuring of efficiency & productivity; and balanced scorecard etc.; and Job satisfaction is closely related with the work performance of the employees within an organization. For example, job satisfaction can creates more commitment to the employees and thus improve better work performance within the organization.
5.2.2 Key summary of the findings from primary and secondary data
The summary of the research findings from the primary and secondary data can be represent as follows- The organization may need to consider some particular issues and matters in relation to job satisfaction and work performance of the employees. These include- organizational structure, organizational culture, job design and job description, nature of supervision and leadership style, and organization’s policies and regulations etc.; The organizational can adopt and implement some tools and techniques for the purpose of ensuring job satisfaction that has impact on the work performance of the employees. The major tools and techniques include- financial and non-financial reward system; empowerment and power delegation; and involvement of employee into decision making process etc.; There is significant role of the leader and/or manager within the organization to motivate the employees that can increase job satisfaction and thus better work performance from them.
The management personnel of the case studied organization have agreed that there should be appropriate application of motivational tools and techniques by the leader and/or manager to motivate employees in relation to increase job satisfaction and better work performance of employees; The majority of the general employees are working for 1-2 years and they are not sure regarding their job satisfaction within the case studied organization;
The majority of the general employees have mentioned that salary is the prime concern for the job satisfaction and thus work performance followed by other factors such as working environment, relations with other employees, organizational structure & culture and job design & job description etc.; Most the general employees are satisfied with the following aspects- relationships with other employees, work itself, and overall company’s policies and regulations. On the other hand, majority of the general employees are dissatisfied with current organizational structure, payment system, career opportunities and level of involvement in decision making process etc.; and The organizational workplace (diversity and equal opportunities) is very favourable for the general employees in relation to create job satisfaction and thus work performance of them within the organization.
Based on the primary and secondary data and information, it can be said that majority of the general employees are satisfied in some cases that affecting the job satisfaction. Thus, the author would like to provide following recommendations both for the academic perspective and organizational perspective.
5.3.1Recommendations in respect to academic perspective
The recommendations in respect of academic perspective are as follows- 1. This research report will be able to improve existing theories and practices in relation to that factors that influence job satisfaction and thus improve work performance of the employees within an organization, particularly into the hospitality and hotel industry; 2. There is some gaps into the knowledge regarding the measuring level of job satisfaction within the hospitality industry, so this report will be able to provide some tools and techniques that can be applied for the measuring job satisfaction; 3. The existing gaps into the knowledge in relation to measuring the work performance can be eliminate or minimize through the identified approaches in this research report within the case studied organization; and 4. This research report will be able to represent very clear discussion and exploitation about the relationships between job satisfaction and work performance as well as the roles of job satisfaction on the work performance of the employees within an organization.
5.3.2Recommendations in respect to organizational perspective
The recommendations in respect of organizational perspective are as follows- 1. The organization needs to change the current organizational structure for the purpose of proper communication of knowledge and information from the top management people to the general employees to achieve organizational goals and objectives; 2. The organizational should continue the current practices and approaches within the workplace for the better involvement and
participation of all employees into the decision making process within the organization; 3. There should be better payment systems as well as both financial and non-financial reward systems for the general employees within the organization;
4. There should be regular meetings and gatherings within the general employees and top management personnel to share knowledge and information as well as to collect feedback and suggestions from the general employees; 5. The organization should introduce new bonus schemes, extra facilities, and extra benefits to the general employees to increase job satisfaction that will increase and improve the efficiency and productivity of them; 6. There is no specific guidance and prospect for the future career development and opportunities within the organization, so there should be proper steps by the organization to highlight career development and opportunities; and 7. The organization should adopt and implement on regular basis both measuring of job satisfaction and work performance and thus provide relevant support and guidance to improve the skills and competencies that can create more job satisfaction and better work performance.