A microorganism or microbe is a microscopic organism that comprises either a single cell (unicellular), cell clusters, or multicellular relatively complex organisms. The study of microorganisms is called microbiology.
Classification and structure
Microorganisms can be found almost anywhere in the taxonomic organization of life on the planet. Bacteria and archaea are almost always microscopic, while a number of eukaryotes are also microscopic, including most protists, some fungi, as well as some animals and plants. Viruses are generally regarded as not living and therefore are not microbes, although the field of microbiology also encompasses the study of viruses.
What is a microbe?
A microbe – another word for a microorganism – is a tiny individual living thing that is way too
small to be seen by the human eye alone. The only way this tiny organism can be seen is by using
a microscope. This is why microbes are often called “microscopic organisms.”
Almost all bacteria are invisible to the naked eye, with a few extremely rare exceptions, such as Thiomargarita namibiensis. They lack membrane-bound organelles, and can function and reproduce as individual cells, but often aggregate in multicellular colonies. Their genome is usually a single loop of DNA, although they can also harbor small pieces of DNA called plasmids. These plasmids can be transferred between cells through bacterial conjugation. Bacteria are surrounded by a cell wall, which provides strength and rigidity to their cells. They reproduce by binary fission or sometimes by budding, but do not undergo sexual reproduction. Some species form extraordinarily resilient spores, but for bacteria this is a mechanism for survival, not reproduction. Under optimal conditions bacteria can grow extremely rapidly and can double as quickly as every 10 minutes.
Gram Positive and Gram Negative Bacteria It is a well-known fact that bacterial cells, like plant cells, are surrounded by a cell wall. However, few people know that their cell walls are quite different. Bacterial cell walls are made up of polysaccharide chains linked to amino acids. At the same time, plant cell walls are made up of cellulose, which contains no amino acids. In the same way, ...
Properties of Bacteria
• prokaryotic (no membrane-enclosed nucleus)
• no mitochondria or chloroplasts
• a single chromosome
o a closed circle of double-stranded DNA
o with no associated histones
• If flagella are present, they are made of a single filament of the protein flagellin; there are none of the “9+2” tubulin-containing microtubules of the eukaryotes.
• ribosomes differ in their structure from those of eukaryotes [More]
• have a rigid cell wall made of peptidoglycan.
Structure and contents of a typical Gram positive bacterial cell
Habitat of bacteria
The habibtat of bacteria are that they are onmi-present and they can be found from the coldest region on earth to the hottest region on earth. They can also be found inside our body and also inside animals body.
Bacteria are found everywhere. They are on you, inside you, in the air you breathe, the ground you walk, everything you touch and come into contact with in your everyday life. The foods you eat and drink, your saliva, the soil, in different layers of the atmosphere, the oceans, even the polar regions of earth have some, deep sea vents and thermal springs, swimming pools have bacteria (no matter how much chemicals you use), dead stuff on the side of the road, sweat, different kinds of animals carry different kinds of bacteria. You name and it could be a potential habitat for bacteria.
A fungus is a member of a large group of eukaryotic organisms that includes microorganisms such as yeasts and molds (British English: moulds), as well as the more familiar mushrooms. These organisms are classified as a kingdom, Fungi, which is separate from plants, animals, and bacteria.
Fungal Hyphae Cells
Fungi often grow in soil, and in the case of mushrooms form conspicuous fruiting bodies, which sometimes bear resemblance to plants such as mosses. The fungi are now considered a separate kingdom, distinct from both plants and animals, from which they appear to have diverged around one billion years ago.
The Ebola Virus History of, Occurrences, and Effects of Ebola, a virus which acquires its name from the Ebola River (located in Zaire, Africa), first emerged in September 1976, when it erupted simultaneously in 55 villages near the headwaters of the river. It seemed to come out of nowhere, and resulted in the deaths of nine out of every ten victims. Although it originated over 20 years ago, it ...
Fungi have a worldwide distribution, and grow in a wide range of habitats, including extreme environments such as deserts or areas with high salt concentrations or ionizing radiation, as well as in deep sea sediments. Some can survive the intense UV and cosmic radiation encountered during space travel. Most grow in terrestrial environments, though several species live partly or solely in aquatic habitats, such as the chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis, a parasite that has been responsible for a worldwide decline in amphibian populations. This organism spends part of its life cycle as a motile zoospore, enabling it to propel itself through water and enter its amphibian host. Other examples of aquatic fungi include those living in hydrothermal areas of the ocean.
The biological species concept discriminates species based on their ability to mate. The application of molecular tools, such as DNA sequencing and phylogenetic analysis, to study diversity has greatly enhanced the resolution and added robustness to estimates of genetic diversity within various taxonomic groups.[
A virus is a small infectious agent that can only replicate inside the cells of another organism. The word is from the Latin ”virus” referring to poison and other noxious substances, first used in English in 1392. ”Virulent”, from Latin ”virulentus” (poisonous), dates to 1400. A meaning of “agent that causes infectious disease” is first recorded in 1728, The term ”virion” is also used to refer to a single infective viral particle.
Most crops and habitats affected by caterpillar pests.
Naturally occurring viruses may affect many caterpillar pests. NPV affects alfalfa looper, corn earworm, imported cabbageworm, cabbage looper, cotton bollworm, cotton leafworm, tobacco budworm, armyworms, European corn borer, almond moth, spruce budworm, Douglas fir tussock moth, pine sawfly and gypsy moth. Preparations of granulosis virus have been isolated from several caterpillar species, including imported cabbageworm, cabbage looper, armyworm, fall webworm, and mosquitoes, among many others.
The Florida Panther is one of about thirty subspecies of felis con color. The subspecies, cory i is one of the most rare endangered animals in the world. It has been federally listed as endangered since 1967, and is currently at 50 to 70 individuals in the wild. Though this is an increase in panther population in the last 8 years the future of the Florida Panther is still greatly at risk. " ...
Mode of Action
Viruses invade an insect’s body via the gut. They replicate in many tissues and can disrupt components of an insect’s physiology, interfering with feeding, egg laying, and movement.