Myocardial infarction is a serious medical emergency need directly intervention and consider one of the major cause of death and disability worldwide. (Lauer, Blackstone, Young, & Topol, 1999 p 618-620? ).
It is define as closed in a main coronary artery or one of it’s branches that feed the heart, lead to die or sever damage in heart muscle fibers that supplied by this artery. The death of muscle tissue occurs if the obstruction for more than 15-20 minutes and often permanent damage if the obstruction r for more than 4-6 hours.
Heart often leads to death (Thygesen, Alpert, & White, 2007 p 2173-2195 . (In thesis statement may talk about Myocardial Infarction signs and symptoms, atherosclerosis and risk factor , diagnoses ,treatment and prevention . The sign and symptoms in myocardial infarction deferent from person to person and it is from no symptoms to sudden cardiac arrest (McClure, McGivern, Stultz, & Whitehurst, 2009).
But the most common sever chest pain radiated to the left upper arm or heaviness on the chest, with shorting in breathing, epigastric pain or felling nauseated or vomiting, sweating, if the heart attack client will not complain of pain it will be silent attack mostly in diabetic or in geriatric people, in additional the pain will made anxiety and irritable (Hubbard, 2003, p. 28–29).
The Heart Introduction You need your heart for all your body needs. It pumps about 2000 gallons of blood a day. It takes about 20 seconds for blood to reach every cell in the body. An artery carries blood out from the heart. A vein carries blood back to the heart. An average adult heart weighs about 10-13 ounces (300 to 350 grams). The rate which the heart pumps varies depending on what your doing ...
When this symptoms seen or the person fell it, should not ignore and must be immediately asked for medical services.
Atherosclerosis which is common cause of myocardial infarction, coronary arteries give continuous oxygenated blood to the heart muscle, this important to supply necessary energy to the heart muscle to continue its work. If coronary arteries become narrow blood cannot flow as well as it should be through. Accumulate fatty substances and calcium and proteins and cells of inflammation within the arteries to form a plaques of various sizes (Benditt, 1977, p 74-85).
These plaques and be solid from the outside and soft and tender on the inside.
When the plaques become very solid from the outside, start forming cracks on the outer casing and lead to the collect of platelets in the region, and then begin clots blood around plaque ruptured (Benditt, 1977,p 74-85).
If the bloods clot blocking the artery completely, the heart muscle becomes starved for oxygen. And within a short period of time, lead to the death of heart muscle cells, causing damage or permanent damage to the heart muscle (EMS, S. K. C. 2006).
Cardiovascular Emergencies. )
The risk factor for myocardial infraction is different from person to person, and not necessary to get heart attack. Heart attack can be happen with or without any risk factor, when the person has more risk factor there is more possibility to get heart attack. High blood presser, Cholesterol Problems, Obesity and Diabetes Mellitus increase the risk of developing atherosclerosis consider medical risk factor. Smoking, alcohol, less physical activity and drug addiction consider life style risk factor (Ambrose, Barua, 2004, p. 1731).
Age, Gender and Genetic also consider important risk factor.
Ambrose, Barua, (2004) p. n. 1731. ) Any person with severe chest pain and diagnoses of myocardial infarction should be in emergency department there is several investigation should done very quickly to confirm, the investigation included electrocardiogram, blood testing, and echocardiography. The electrocardiogram is electrical machine to chick the heart electrical activity and recorded it on special type of paper. And depend on the size, place and shape of the diagram come out the type of the myocardial infraction will be decided (Dower, 1989. U. S.
... heart attack is myocardial infarction. The reduction or stoppage happens when one or more of the coronary arteries supplying blood to the heart muscle ... turn may lead to high blood pressure, which also increases the risk of coronary heart disease. (NHLBI, 1993) ... risk factors are high blood cholesterol, high blood pressure, smoking, obesity, physical inactivity and diabetes. The other risk factors ...
Patent No. 4,850,370. ) . see #1 Blood testing will help in diagnoses myocardial infarction, blood sample for certain enzymes which is enzymes found in the blood within 6-8 hours or days after a heart attack (Alpert, Thygesen, Jaffe, & White, 2008, p 1335-1341. ) The aim of the use of medicines in the treatment of myocardial infarction is to destroy blood clots or prevent their formation, and prevent platelets from sticking of the artery wall, and the stability of the plaque, and prevent further ischemia of the heart muscle (Hubbard, 2003, p 28–29).
The treatment should be giving as soon as possible within one to two hours of the start of heart attack to reduce the amount of damage in the heart. (Silber, Albertsson, Aviles, Camici, Colombo, Hamm, & Wijns, 2005,. p 804-847).
In acute phase the treatment aim to reduce the chest pain, MONA is one of the famous guideline in treatment which is mean M = Morphine for pain, O= Oxygen, N = sublingual nitroglycerin and A = Aspirin. (Ryan, Antman, Brooks, Califf, Hillis, Hiratzka, & Smith, 1999, p.
1016-1030) It is very simple to prevent or reduce the chance to have myocardial infarction just to change the bad habit of taking food by reducing the amount of fat in the diet, take more physical exercise, give up smoking tobacco, that can help to reduce blood cholesterol levels which is the major cause of myocardial infarction which is lead to death (Manson, Tosteson, Ridker, Satterfield, Hebert, O’Connor, & Hennekens, 1992, p1406-1416).
In additional of that to get medical tests regular to discover any medical disease which effected on the heart early that will decrease the risk factore to safer from myocardial infarction and take medications if necessary or proflacting like aspirine (Janzon, Bergqvist, Boberg, Eriksson, Lindgarde, & Persson, 1990. p 301-308.? ) In general heart attack still one of the most cause of death in the all the word. Myocardial infarction results from cell death due to myocardial ischemia, most often because of clotted in the coronary artery due to ulcerated or unstable atherosclerotic plaque.
... had a myocardial infarction are electrocardiograms (ECGs) that trace the electrical signals in the heart and testing the blood for substances ... around the lining of the heart) Pulmonary embolism (blood clot in the lungs) Complications from treatment (for example, thrombolytic agents ... Nonetheless, about two thirds of older people have chest pain, as do younger people. Older people, especially women, ...
Characteristics by sever squeeze chest pain, sweaty and vomiting. Include hyperlipidemia, diabetes, hypertension, male gender, and tobacco use. The atherosclerosis consider the main cause of the myocardial infarction, the diagnoses depend on the electrocardiogram change and the elevation of the cardiac enzyme, the fast treatment in emergency room is giving pain killer, oxygen and anticoagulant as aspirin. In all of that any type of chest pain should be taken as the top priority and not be neglected.