African-Americans between 1877 and 1928 – research (1) With abolition of slavery in U.S., African-Americans were given the opportunity of social advancement. However, many Blacks were not able to take advantage of the fact that they had realized themselves a free people, all of a sudden. This was due to White racism remaining to serve as foundation, upon which social policies in America were based at the time. From 1877 to the beginning of 20th century, approximately one third of Blacks that used to reside in Southern states, relocated to Mid-West and Western states in search for job. During this period, African-Americans were being harshly discriminated against, as there were no public organizations established yet that would protect the rights of Black workers. To make things worse, there were many European immigrants coming to America at the time and White industrialists preferred to hire them, as physical laborers, instead of African-Americans, who were looking for the same kind of job.
Nevertheless, the socio-political status of Blacks was slowly improving, during this time, as there were many black colleges established across the nation, where African-Americans were able to obtain basic education. In late 19th century, one of Black greatest writers Booker T. Washington used to encourage African-Americans to integrate in White communities, by proving their ability of existing in socially acceptable mode. According to Washington, the fact that majority of White people had a disdainful attitude towards Blacks was only helping prominent African-Americans to strengthen their characters: The individual who can do something that the world wants done will, in the end, make his way regardless of his race. (Washington, p.10).
The Color of America Americans have the tendency to make judgments based on appearances. A man dressed in dirty, torn rags walking down the street would be considered poor and homeless. Women that dress in tight clothes or short skirts are almost instantly categorized as being promiscuous. Unfortunately, stereotypes negatively affect the ability to understand members of a different group or ...
The validity of this statement, in regards to African-Americans, was slowly becoming obvious, because, despite the White racism and the absence of anti-discrimination laws, many Blacks were able to contribute immensely to the development of American music, by inventing a musical style that we now strongly associate with American culture jazz. It is in the field of music, where the creativeness of Black people was able to realize its full potential.
(2) The year 1908 was marked with founding of The National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP).
Even though that associations presidency was usually being held by Whites, this organization was able to benefit African-Americans immensely, as it strived to make them aware of their social rights and freedoms and taught them how stand up for these freedoms. Such Black intellectuals of the time as Scott Joplin, Rosamond Johnson, James Weldon Johnson and Paul Laurence were also known their uncompromising stand, in regards to combating racial prejudices. More and more African-Americans were trying to get a real education, as they were beginning to understand that learning about the ways of Jesus at missionary schools, established by White bible-thumpers, was leading them nowhere. This was the reason why the number of Black students in American colleges and universities got tripled by 1914, as compared to the number of such students at the beginning of 20th century. The World War I was a turning point in African-American history, because it speeded up the process of Black urbanization and institutional development. African-Americans were able to recognize social opportunities that were brought about by America becoming involved in European hostilities.
There were many industrial jobs vacated at the time, because of military draft, which prompted African-Americans to significantly increase their representation rate in American industry. After the war, there was a surge in racialist sentiment towards Blacks in U.S., on the part of White citizens. It is estimated that as many as 1257 African-Americans were subjected to Lynch trials, within a matter of ten years, after 1918. In its turn, this resulted in Blacks becoming more racially aware. This created spiritual preconditions for so-called Harlem Renaissance, as cultural phenomenon. Such literary figures as Claude McKay, Jean Toomer and Langston Hughes, were able to prove once and for all that Black people are capable of operating with highly abstract categories, which in its turn, laid the ideological foundation for the Civil Rights movement in sixties.
... Tensions between politicians and African Americans had roots going back centuries, of course, and tensions between black Civil Rights activists and white politicians had roots ... Era. The “inequality of black people was gradually becoming a prime symbol of what needed to be changed in American society” (Isserman/Kazin pg. ...
Hutchinson, Earl The Politics of Lynching. 2000. Hartford Web Publishing. 29 Feb. 2008. http://www.hartford-hwp.com/archives/45a/310.html Washington, Booker Up from Slavery Airmont: New York. 1967. Abstract: This paper discusses different aspects of African-American history, from 1877 to 1928.
Outline: 19th century 20th century.