A Rise in Efforts to Spot Abuse in Dating, highlights the prevalence of abuse (physical, sexual, and verbal) within teen relationships—identifying females as the most prevalent victims. As the article emphasizes the need for preventive programming, this paper will present the internet resource, Heather’s Voice and provide suggestions for a program within schools that may utilize this resource in the prevention and identification of teen dating violence/abuse.
In addition, this paper will present suggestions on how this program can be evaluated. The NYT article discusses the prevalence of teen deaths due to dating violence in the U. S. over the past several years and discusses national, statewide, private, and institutional measures to aid in the prevention of this epidemic (retrieved April 20, 2009, www. nyt. com).
Of the cases presented, Heather Norris’s case is highlighted to give insight around the commonness of teen dating violence and how easily it can progress and/or go undetected. Social Problem
Intimate-partner violence, sometimes called domestic violence or spouse abuse, includes acts of physical aggression, sexual coercion, psychological/emotional abuse and controlling behaviors by a current or former partner or spouse (Heise & Garcia-Moreno, 2002).
It can happen within marriage, long-term partnerships or short-term intimate relationships, and can be perpetrated by ex-partners when these relationships have ended. It has been documented as largely perpetrated by men against women, although such violence also occurs in same-sex couples and can be perpetrated by women against men.
... that they had experienced some physical violence in the dating relationship. The degree of violence reported differed by gender. Teen dating violence often is hidden because teenagers ... themselves use alcohol as an excuse for being violent.Physical abuse includes shoving, slapping, choking, punching, kicking, biting, hair pulling, ... action, there are too many people are getting hurt and abused.
As a category of interpersonal violence, intimate-partner violence includes dating violence that occurs among young people, although the pattern of such violence may be different to that experienced in the context of long-term partnerships, and studies often examine the two issues separately. Research suggests that roughly one in three high school students has been or will be involved in an abusive relationship (physical, emotional, sexual).
Furthermore, one in five adolescent girls experiences physical or sexual violence perpetrated by her dating partner, according to a recent arge-scale study. International research increasingly shows that violence within intimate relationships is not a phenomenon unique to adulthood, but rather a disturbingly common feature of adolescent dating relationships (Pinheiro, 2006).
The prevalence of dating violence is staggering, its impact enormous. In an effort to educate teen girls on dating violence and provide support to those already in abusive relationships, Heather’s mother, Debbie Norris created the website, Heather’s Voice. The site states that it aims to educate teens about dating violence and domestic abuse.
The website shares Heather Norris’s story and provides educational information, outside resources/hotlines, and tools geared to teen girls around awareness and prevention of dating abuse. The educational information is provided through definitions and key terms, check-list of signs of abuse (how to detect abuse in your own relationship and how to detect if someone you know is being abused), relevant articles, and statistics. The site also provides an Ask Debbie link that allows the user to ask anonymous questions around abuse and dating violence. Program Theory
... discussion on the prevention and investigation of child abuse. Prevention of child abuse The realization of effective child abuse prevention entails the creation ... . There are various causes of child abuse in the community. Such include; domestic violence, cultural beliefs, economic status, and ... have banned corporal punishment of children both in the schools and in the family. This serves the purpose ...
Primary prevention framework In a public health framework, primary prevention means reducing the number of new instances of intimate-partner violence or sexual violence by intervening before any violence occurs. The impact of primary prevention is measured at population level by comparing the frequency with which either victimization or perpetration occurs. This approach contrasts with other prevention efforts that seek to reduce the harmful consequences of an act of violence after it has occurred, or to prevent further acts of violence from occurring once violence has been identified.
Primary prevention relies on identification of the underlying risk and protective factors for intimate-partner violence and/or sexual violence, and action to address those factors. Its aim is to reduce rates of intimate partner violence and sexual violence. Since research suggests that a large percentage of teens/adolescents in the U. S. use Internet between 3-5 hours a day, as a source of entertainment, education, and communication—such programs that utilize internet based prevention resources may increase the likelihood of reaching their goals and objectives.
Similarly, programs integrated within schools and/or school curriculums have also been proven to support positive outcomes (Lavoie, et. al, 1995, p 519).
Many programs have been created in the prevention and education of teen dating violence since the 1980’s, that incorporate these aforementioned components, yet, there is a lack in research evaluating the effectiveness of such programs in decreasing the problem of violence or changing attitudes (Lavoie, et. al, 1995).
Most public high schools across the United States require a component of health education, which mainly includes reproduction, hygiene, and sexual health (i. . sexually transmitted diseases).
Even though there is a rise in teen dating violence and abuse, there is only a limited amount of schools that provide educational interventions and even fewer have such programs as a requirement (Lavoie, et. al, 1995, p 517).
Therefore, the proposed program, Our Voices, will be implemented as a component of high school health education curriculums. Program Description Our Voices, a school-based program in the prevention of adolescent dating violence (perpetration and victimization) was developed utilizing the interactive educational website, Heather’s Voice.
... or just because children were not able go to school, education proved to be a major issue during the Great ... 1934 and ended in November of 1934. The program was an adult education program that helped the unemployed teachers find jobs. Unemployed ... education system to survive the Great Depression" (Peterson). Finally, the National Youth Administration (NYA) was a program created to aid high school ...
The program will be a component of the physical education requirement and will take place during the second semester of freshman year (9th grade 13-14 year olds), and its meeting times and hours will be consistent with core requirement standards. Consisting of a personal workbook for each participant and Facilitator’s Guide, which is used in tandem with the website, the aforementioned program emphasizes an early prevention framework, seeking to provide youth the education on dating violence to avoid, recognize, and escape abusive situations.
At the same time, it also includes exercises to help survivors of abuse deal with their experiences and begin to heal. Topics include qualities of a healthy relationship, setting boundaries, assertiveness and communication, danger signs, defining abuse, gender stereotypes, what to do in case of assault, legal rights, understanding feelings, and dealing with trauma. The program will be modified for males and females separately and both will address same-sex couples.
Even though females in heterosexual relationships are more likely to be victims—it is important not to exclude males or same-sex couples, “primary prevention strategies will not be effective if they focus on women and girls alone—men and boys must be included, program working with men should approach men as partners and agents of change” (Harvey, et al, 2007, p28).
Additionally, research shows that education programs for perpetrators or potential perpetrators in addition to potential victims have been effective in the prevention of abuse or amelioration of abusive behaviors through awareness and understanding (Harvey, et al, 2007, p15).
For the purpose of allowing for group comfort, bonding, and disclosure it is beneficial to have a separate group for males and females. Also, adolescents are more likely to modify their responses in order to appease the opposite sex, thus decreasing the efficacy of the program. Program Objectives: •Build awareness amongst participants around teen dating violence •Help students understand the components of a healthy relationship •Build assertiveness and partner communication skills •Build a support network for students both in school and online Program Goals: Reduce rates of intimate partner violence and sexual violence amongst teens and young adults •Increase identification of teen dating violence within participating schools through self-reporting and witness reporting Program Evaluation An outcome evaluation will be necessary in assessing the efficiency of the program—whether or not its objectives were met. In order to assess the outcome of the program, the participants will be required to complete a self-report survey before and after the completion of the course. The survey will be composed of 20 questions on a 5 point Likert Scale.
... violence includes all forms of violence within families. It is commonly used to describe the abuse women suffer at the hands of their male ... .This may indicate that she is now in a violent relationship, believing the way her parents related is the norm. It ... NO excuse for any kind of violence.Violence is never an acceptable method of solving conflicts in relationships, nor do partners have a ...