George Orwell was born Eric Arthur Blair on June 25, 1903, in Motihari, India. The Blairs were relatively prosperous civil servants, working in India on behalf of the British Empire. Blair would later describe his familys socioeconomic status as “lower-upper middle class,” on comment on the extraordinary degree to which British citizens in India depended on the Empire for their livelihood; though the Blair were able to live quite comfortably in India, they had none of the physical assets or independent investments that would have been enjoyed by their class in England proper. Despite this factor, Ida Blair moved back to England in 1904 with Eric and his older sister Marjorie so that they could be brought up in a more traditional Christian environment. In England, Blair entered the public school system, and was admitted to Eton College in 1917. For most students of this era, Eton led directly to higher education at a university, often Oxford or Cambridge.
Blair shunned further formal schooling, and after leaving Eton in 1921, returned to India in 1922 to join the Indian Imperial Police. This work gave Blair his first real experiences with the poor and downtrodden whom he would later champion, and unhappy with the his position as the “hand of the oppressor,” Blair resigned from the police force in 1927, returning to England that same year. Upon return to England, Blair lived in the East End district of London, which was filled with paupers and the destitute, whom he saw as the spiritual kin of the Burmese peasants he had encountered as a policeman. In 1928, Blair moved to Paris to become a writer, where he again lived among the poor, and was eventually forced to abandon his writing temporarily and become a dishwasher. He returned to England the next year (1929), and lived as a tramp before finding work as a teacher at a private school. This position gave Blair time to write, and his first book, Down and Out in Paris and London, was published in 1933, under the pseudonym George Orwell.
India is a country with a rich culture and many age-old traditions. Although some of these aspects of indian culture can still be seen today, India has changed greatly over the year. A major contributing factor to this change was British colonization of India in the early and mid-1700s; colonization had both short-term and long-term impacts on India. Prior to British colonization most of India ...
The publication of this first work, which was an account of his years living among the poor of Paris and London, marks the beginning of a more stable period for Orwell, in which he taught, opened a bookshop, and continued to write. His first fictional work, Burmese Days, appeared in 1934. The next few years saw a steady stream of activity for Orwell, who produced A Clergymans Daughter in 1935 and Keep the Aspidistra Flying in 1936. During this period he also met Eileen Maud OShaughnessy, whom he married on June 9, 1936. That same year Orwell received a grant from the Left Book Club to produce a work dealing with the conditions of the poor, which resulted in the publication of The Road to Wigan Pier. In December of 1936, Orwell decided to enlist in the POAM, the Socialist military party in Spain, during the Spanish Civil War. Attracted by the vision of a society without class distinction, Orwell fought for socialism in Spain, but was wounded in the neck and forced to return to England in 1938.
His account of his experiences in Spain was published as Homage to Catalonia that same year. Upon his return to England, however, Orwell fell ill with tuberculosis, which he neglected. In 1941, Orwell went to work for the BBC as a broadcaster for India, a post which he resigned to become the literary editor for The Tribune. This position was equally short-lived, however, as Orwell resigned in 1945 to begin work on Animal Farm. Orwells family life experienced significant upheaval during this period, marked by the adoption of a son, Richard, in 1944, and by the death of his wife Eileen during an operation in 1945. Soon after Eileens death, Animal Farm was published, and Orwell become “famous overnight”.
In reaction to the sudden glare of fame, Orwell moved to the island of Jura, off the coast of Scotland, with aggravated his tuberculosis considerably. While at Jura, Orwell wrote his last novel and perhaps most famous novel, 1984, and married Sonia Bromwell. In 1949 Orwell returned to England, but his tuberculosis was by that time painfully advanced. He eventually succumbed to the disease, dying on January 21, 1950. Summary of 1984 Part I sets up the misery of Winston’s world before he outwardly expresses any sort of rebellion. Winston Smith is living in London, chief city of Airstrip One (formerly known as England), in the superstate of Oceania. It ishe thinks1984.
The quote "I know how but I don't know why" reflects George Orwell's motive for writing 1984, which is to show a society that is ruled by rigid totalitarianism and to present the objectives behind the governments originator and rulers. Throughout the book Orwell shows how the lives of the Outer Party and Proles are controlled from life till death. The main character Winston Smith is a member of ...
Oceania is a totalitarian state dominated by the principles of Ingsoc (English Socialism) and ruled by an ominous organization known simply as the Party. Oceania and the two other world superstates, Eurasia and Eastasia, are involved in a continuous war over the remaining world, and constantly shift alliances. As the novel progresses, it becomes clear that the war is largely an illusion, and that the three superstates maintain this illusion for their mutual benefit. It serves their shared purpose of holding onto absolute power over their respective peoples. Much of the warfare, in fact, is inflicted by these governments upon their own citizens. Oceanic society is hierarchical and oligarchic.
At the bottomwhere the vast majority of the population liesare the “proles” or proletariat, the working classes who are uneducated and largely left alone by the government except when it is necessary to tap into mass patriotism or political participation. Above the proles is the Outer Party, less privileged members of the Party who spend their time keeping the wheels of the Party machine well-oiled and running smoothly. These people are systematically brainwashed from a young age and are kept under constant surveillance by ubiquitous “telescreens” (which can receive and transmit visual and aural impulses simultaneously) and the ominous Thought Police. Above the Outer Party are the Inner Party members, who enjoy the fruits of power and production, and whose sole aim is to perpetuate power for the Party, forever. At the very top of the pyramid is Big Brother, the embodiment of the Party, a “face” and glorified persona which it is easier to love than an abstract collective organization. On this April day, Winston has left the Ministry of Truth, where he works in the Records Department, to take his lunch break at home, because he wishes to write in his diarya compromising activity and a compromising possession to begin with.
... the citizens of Oceania. The Party displays its power over both the history of the world and over the citizens of Oceania's everyday life in ... a big bed in the room. Their softness prompts Winston to think of the past. Winston is the only person who remembers the ... past and that there was a different kind of life in ...
Yet, despite his fears, he is overwhelmed with the need to impose some sanity upon his world. Winston is a rebel at heart, a heretic who does not subscribe to Party doctrines or beliefs. After reflecting on the day’s events, notably the event which inspired him to begin the diary on this day, Winston is startled by a knock on the door. Could it be the Thought Police already? Fortunately, it is only his neighbor Mrs. Parsons, asking him to help her unclog her kitchen sink drain. He does, and after being briefly tormented by her childrendangerous little demons already brainwashed by the Party and certain to turn on their parents one dayhe returns to his flat.
Winston’s diary and his dreams and memories of the past are all testament to his need to anchor himself in the past, believing it to be more sane than the world he lives in now. The description of his dreams and memories gradually unfolds the developments which have led to the current world order. Winston’s job at the fraudulently-named Ministry of Truth involves the daily rewriting of history: he corrects “errors” and “misprints” in past articles in order to make the Party appear infallible and constantalways correct in its predictions, always at war with one enemy. Currently the enemy is Eurasia, and it follows (according to the Party) that it has always been Eurasia, though Winston knows this to be untrue. Despite his horror at the Party’s destruction of the past, Winston enjoys his part in it, taking pleasure in using his imagination in rewriting Big Brother’s speeches and such. It becomes apparent, through a painstaking unfolding of detail, that the standards of living in Oceania are barely tolerable.
For the majority of the population, goods are scarce, and everything is ugly and tastes horrible. Depressed, Winston wonders if the past were better. Once upon a time, did people enjoy marriage, was sex pleasurable, were there enough goods to go around? He recalls his own dismal marriage to Katharine, a frigid woman so inculcated with Party doctrine that she hates sex but insists upon it once a week as “our duty to the Party.” Winston feels that the only hope lies in the proles, ….
Winston Churchill was made Prime Minster of Great Britain on May 10, 1940. Historians have analyzed Churchill's impact on the Second World War, especially from his appointment in 1940 until 1941. This period of the war is seen as being a crucial time for Britain, a time when they had to fight the war alone against Germany. Churchill's appointment was not well received by everyone, as many people ...