Guidelines for Biology Experiments 1. 0 Attendance 1. 1 Attendance to practical sessions is COMPULSORY. 1. 2 If you cannot come to the class due to ill health or emergency excuses, please inform the lecturer EARLIER, so that another practical session can be arranged for you ON THE SAME WEEK. 2. 0 Lab coat 2. 1 Wearing lab coat is COMPULSORY. 2. 2 Put on the lab coat throughout the class. 3. 0 Jotter 3. 1 Jotters should contain the summary on the PROCEDURES you are going to perform during the experiment. 3. 2 It can be in the form of short notes, flow charts, mind maps, diagrams or any other forms of summary. 3.
3 Jotter should also include observation whenever necessary. 3. 4 Complete jotters must be submitted in groups prior to the experiment. The lecturer will check, mark and return them before the class ends. 4. 0 Recording observations/results 4. 1 All observation should be done on blank A4 paper 4. 2 Drawings (a) Use blank A4 paper (b) Limit to only TWO diagrams on each page. (c) Each diagram should be enclosed by a border. (d) As for scientific drawings, e. g. diagrams of cells, tissues or organelles, there shouldn’t be any discontinuous lines, overlapped lines and shades. (e) For each diagram, it must have : a.
Title of the diagram, if specimen’s name write down the common name and/or scientific name b. Magnification power (if using compound or dissecting microscope) c. Labels (minimum 3 labels) 1 4. 3 Numerical data (a) Record numerical data in the particular tables. 4. 4 Graphs (a) Use the graph paper to plot any graphs. (b) For each graph, it must have : a. Title of the graph b. Title of Y- axis and X-axis c. Label (if necessary) 5. 0 Report 5. 1 Front cover (a) The standard front cover will be given to students by the respective lecturer. (b) Make sure that all particulars on the cover are completed before submitting the report.
* Characteristics by which physical properties of system may be described. e.g. pressure, volume, temperature, entropy, enthalpy etc. * Properties are the coordinates by which state of the system is described. * Any operation in which one or more properties of system may change is called change of state. * Thermodynamic properties are of two types : Extensive properties- that depend on mass of the ...
5. 2 Format and evaluation (a) The particulars should be in the following order: – Title (as in manual book) – Objective (as in manual book) – Observation/Result (draw in blank A4 paper following the format given) – Discussion/Exercises/Questions – Conclusion (at least 2 conclusions) – References (at least 3 references following the format given) (b) The marks will be awarded (only if the experiment is conducted, i. e. the student is present during the particular experiment) in the following areas: Criteria Manipulative skill Observation/Result Discussion/Exercise/Questions Conclusion Reference Marks 25% 40% 20% 10% 5%.
5. 3 Submission of report (a) Reports of an experiment should be submitted at least THREE (3) DAYS after the experiment is completed. (b) Marks for reports submitted after the date line will be deducted. 2 HOW TO WRITE A REFERENCE FORMAT : 1. Authors: Authors are listed in the same order as specified in the source, using surnames and initials. Commas separate all authors. When there are eight or more authors, list the first six authors followed by three ellipses (… ) and then the final author. If no author is identified, the title of the document begins the reference.
2. Year of Publication: In parentheses following authors, with a period following the closing parenthesis. If no publication date is identified, use “n. d. ” in parentheses following the authors. 3. Source Reference: Includes title, journal, volume, pages (for journal article) or title, city of publication, publisher (for book).
Italicize titles of books, titles of periodicals, and periodical volume numbers. REFERENCE BOOK Format : Author. (Year of Publication).
Book Title (periodical).
Place. Publisher Eg : Campbell, N. A.
& Reece, J. B. (2007).
Using APA Style taken from Bank Street College Graduate School Writer's Handbook The following explanations from the American Psychological Association will guide you in setting up bibliographies, reference lists, and citations in the text of your work. If you are accustomed to using another style sheet, you will find some striking differences between APA style and the others with which you may be ...
Biology (8th ed. ).
(pp. 80-94) Pearson, The Benjamin Cummings Publishing Company, Inc. JOURNAL Format : Author. (Year of Publication).
Title of journal. Name of journal. (volume) :page referred. Eg : Keller, Margaret A. & E. Richard Stiehm (2000).
Passive Immunity in Prevention and Treatment of Infectious Diseases. Clinical Microbiology Reviews. 13 (4): 602–614. INTERNET Format : Author. (Year of Publication).
Website title. Website address. Eg : Wikipedia. (2012).
Eukaryote. http://en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Eukaryote 3.