Depending on the type of yeast you are using the steps to making bread will vary. Using the basic bread dough recipe, this time line is based on using dry active yeast. I am also basing this time line on the straight dough method which is the direct method of making bread.
To make your dough, your ingredients must be accurately measured and weighed as well as be the appropriate temperature. Wet ingredients are usually weighed rather than measured to guarantee the right amount is added. Humidity and heat can alter the amount of flour needed and therefore will also change the amount of liquid. For our basic dough recipe we need 4 ½ cups to 5 cups of bread flour. This would be weighed on a scale in ounces equaling 36 to 40 ounces. Keeping about ¾ cup of flour to the side, 1 teaspoon of salt and ½ cup of sugar is added to the remaining flour and mixed together. A tablespoon of Active Dry Yeast is dissolved in luke warm water and added to the mixed dry ingredients with 2 tablespoons of vegetable oil. It is imperative that the dough temperature be correct for proper yeast activation.
The typical temperature for dough is around 77 degrees. To achieve the proper dough temperature you have to make sure your water is the right temperature. You wouldn’t take water direct from the tap. Assuming that our room temperature is 77 degrees and our mixer adds a 25 degree friction factor, then we want water that is around 61 degrees. We would add the 1 and ¾ cups of water to our mixture slowly as to not make the dough to wet. If we were using other types of yeast we would either be directly adding the yeast, if instant, or we would soften compressed yeast until it is twice its weight before adding it to our mixture.
Yeast fermentation is affected by temperature as an outcome of the many different temperatures that yeasts are exposed to. The accepted value for yeasts optimum temperature is approximately 66.667 degrees Celsius. If yeast is exposed to their optimum temperature, then this would create the most amount of fermentation. In this experiment however, the yeast were exposed to temperatures below their ...
Once we have added the water we now mix our dough in the mixer using a dough hook on low power until smooth, adding flour or water as needed for the property texture. After everything is mixed we would put the dough on a slab and kneed it until a ball is formed that is stretchy and holds together when pulled. The whole process should take about 10 minutes.
Placing the dough in a container at least twice the size of the dough ball, the dough is left to rise. Rising is when the dough ferments and the yeast works to develop the sugar into alcohol and carbon dioxide. These gasses are what give bread texture and taste. As stated before, rise time will vary depending on room temperature and humidity, but usually takes from 1 to 3 hours. The dough is ready when it is double its original size and no longer springs back to the touch.
Now we take the dough and give it a gentle work over. Punching it down, or folding it over itself, and reshaping the ball redistributes the gasses that were produced during the rise and re activates the yeast. Punching down also helps even out the temperature of the dough and gives the gluten a bit of a rest. We will let the dough rest for 10 minutes after punching it down.
We will shape the dough into our loaf and let it sit until it doubles again. This is called proofing. During proofing additional heat and moisture are added to prevent the dough from drying out. This is can be done in a proofing cabinet or in a container that is covered with a warm moist towel. When making rolls or smaller portion loaves this step would be the time to do that. Each portion would be proofed to double its size.
We will wash our doubled loaf with egg wash to give it sheen and color and bake at 400 degrees for 19 minutes. When the internal temperature is at least 185 degrees we can remove the loaf from the oven. During baking it is important to provide steam in the oven. This allows for a crisp crust and soft center. To add steam to a traditional oven you can spray the bread with water several times during baking or you can put a pan of water in the oven.
This paper provides an introduction to the technology and procedures pertinent to calculate the transit time of a ultrasonic wave in a solid state material. The technique is applied to two types of layered ternary carbides. I. Introduction Methods that employ the use of ultrasonic sound waves permits us to! SS see through!" opaque materials. As early as the 19 th century, people in many different ...
Once the baking is done the bread is cooled on a rack to room temperature. We can store our finished bread on the counter or it can be frozen. We should not store our bread in the refrigerator because it gets stale faster. Though it may seem time consuming, baking your own bread has great rewards and a profound sense of accomplishment. You are guaranteed fresh rolls and bread at every meal and can even try different recipes without spending a lot of money.