Organic Chemistry I LAB EXAM: FINALBROMINATION OF BENZENE SYNTHESIS AND PURIFICATION OF BROMOBENZENE: PROCEDURE DATA TABLE Chemical boiling point C Melting Point C Density g / m L Solubility Benzene 80. 1 5. 5 0. 88 Slightly in H 2 Toluene 110. 6 -93 0.
87 Slightly in H 2 Bromobenzene 155-156 -30. 8 1. 50 InsolubleDibromobenzene 220. 40 87.
31 0. 96 Insoluble MATERIALS: Graduated cylinder Weight scale Buchner funnel Filter flask Rubber stopper Hot plateThermometerConical funnel Various size beakers Fractionating column (for reflux) Various sized round bottom flasks Distillation head Condenser Vacuum adapter Clamps and stands Test tubes PROCEDURE: Pre Lab: The experiment should be carried out AWAY from the sunlight. Before beginning the experiment, we need to make sure that the benzene used in the experiment is free of toluene and water. To do this, we must put anhydrous calcium chloride into a flask of benzene to “dry” it and remove the toluene. This is then decanted into a vacuum filter, which will leave only pure benzene.
Synthesis of Bromobenzene: Set up a reflux and place in a cold-water bath. In addition to setting up the reflux apparatus, set up an inverted funnel gas trap. This will collect the hydrogen bromide gas in the water and not in our lungs when the reflux takes place. Pour 2. 3 mL of benzene in the round bottom flask of the reflux apparatus.
OBJECTIVES: The objective of this experiment was to extract plant leaf pigments and determining them by using the Rf values obtained from the paper chromatography technique. The hypothesis of the experiment was that all of the five listed pigments would be present in the extracted plant leaf according to the Rf values. PROCEDURE/APPARATUS: The equipments used were a 18 x 150 mm test tube with ...
After this, pour the iron (III) bromide (Feb 3) into the same round bottom flask. If there is a vigorous initial reaction, wait until this has almost stopped and then heat the water bath to a temperature of 25-30 O C to initiate the reflux. Reflux at this temperature for an hour. After an hour has passed, raise the temperature of the water to 65-70 O C, and allow refluxing for about 45 minutes. At this point, the color of the liquid should be dark. At this point, the reaction between the benzene and the bromide molecules should be complete.
Purification of Bromobenzene: Transfer this liquid to a separator y funnel, and shake and vent with a 10% aqueous solution of sodium hydroxide. The lower layer should be the layer. Drain this layer out into a beaker. Add water to the liquids in the separator y funnel, and again shake and vent to ensure the absence of bromide.
Drain if necessary. After the extraction, the solution needs to be dried. Again, put anhydrous calcium chloride into a beaker with the and shake. Set aside for about 30 minutes. Decant this solution, and filter this through a vacuum filter. Place the filtered liquid in a round bottom flask.
Set up a distillation apparatus. Place the is a round bottom flask and distill into a clean flask. Collect the distillate only from between 150-160 OC. Re-distil this liquid to obtain a more pure solution of. The liquid collected from this distillation should be between 155-156 OC. It should be colorless and have a slightly “agreeable odor.” This will be considered the “pure” and the reaction yield should be 80%.
Purity tests: Test 1: Determine the boiling point of the liquid by measuring a boiling point range during the distillation. It should be close to 155-156 OC. Test 2: Weigh the liquid and measure the volume. The density should be calculated. The density of is 1. 50 g / m L.
Aim: To determine the strength characteristics of a rock using the point load test and visual judgement. Materials Loading device Loading frame Pump Ram Platens Rock Caliper Method (Standard, 2007) 1. Measure the dimensions of the rock which includes the diameter and length 2. Find the length to diameter ratio to determine which test will be used. If the ratio is greater than 1 use diametrical ...
The calculated density should be close to this number. Test 3: Run the solution through a gas chromatography machine. Possible peaks seen in the gas chromatography could be from, benzene, toluene, and. This means that there could be 4 major peaks, arranged according to boiling point. For the order, refer to the data table above. The peak for the should be the largest in percent area if this experiment has been successful..