Greek and Roman Architecture are both forms of classical architecture. These two classical architectural influences are closely associated with one another as Greek and Roman civilizations rose following each other. Though they are closely associated with one another they each have their own unique characteristics that help distinguish them from one another. Ancient Greek architects strove for precision and excellence of workmanship that has influenced the architecture of the past (Herringway 1).
Greek architecture is distinguished by its three famous column designs known as the Doric, Ionic and Corinthian, which consist of decorated pediments with a focus on symmetry. The most perfect example of a Doric structure would be the Parthenon (Figure 1), which is a temple dedicated to Athena located on the acropolis in Athens made 2400 years ago. The Doric order was the first style used and can be best described as being simple and structured. The columns consist of no base and have indentations on them.
The capitals are composed of two parts, the flat slab which is a square block made from a single piece of marble called an abacus and a cushion-like slab called the echinus (figure 2).
The frieze contains alternating trigylphys, which are three bars and metopes, slabs made of stone. The Doric order was mainly seen on the mainland and Italian Peninsula. The Ionic order contains basses to support the columns and have more vertical indentations than the Doric order. The capitals have two volutes and contain a band of palm-leaf ornaments on the top.
Greek Architecture Greek influence is vis able in everything that we have today. Our laws, cities and even our system of government all come from aspects of greek civilization, but maybe what we have been influenced the most gy the greeks is in architecture. Maybe the reason this is, is that it was a new form of architecture that had little to do with function and everything to do with looks. A ...
The Frieze is the most important feature in the Ionic order which would usually contain a relief sculpture arranged in a pattern that was continuous. This order was much more seen and used with the Greeks in Asia Minor and the Greek Islands. The last order called the Corinthian developed in the late classical period. The capitals have a bell shaped echinus decorated with leaves, spirals and palmettes. On each corner were small volutes which provided the same view from all sides. This order was the most ornate and was more popular during the Hellenistic and Roman periods.
Romans constructed all buildings by executing in such a way as to take account of all durability, utility and beauty. They strived for perfection and accuracy. All though Romans had their distinct architectural styles, they were actually influenced by the Greeks. Romans created new building techniques and combined them with the existing Greek techniques. This gave the Romans the ability to construct a whole new set of structures. Romans still used the guidelines established by the Greeks like the Doric, Ionic and Corinthian orders (Cartwright 1).
Romans predominantly preferred the Corinthian order because of its ornate decorations but added on their own ideas to the order. With this, the Romans created the composite capital which was a mixture of the Ionic Volute with the acanthus leaves of the Corinthian order. A perfect example can be seen on the Arch of Septimius Severus located in Rome (Figure 3).
The Tuscan column was another creation of the Romans. It was generally a simpler design, with rings around its base and it’s top, it was very similar to the Doric Column but had a smaller capital, a much slender shaft without the fluting and contained a moulded base (Figure 4).
Many of ancient Greece structures didn’t survive to this day because of the materials used in constructing them. Greeks used building materials like mud, plaster, wood and stone so many of those structures do not exist today. They did however use marble or limestone to construct their temples and those structures do still exist today, like the Parthenon in Athens. The use of these stones, marble and limestone made the structures be long lasting and durable against natural disasters like earthquakes.
Aegean civilization flourished during the Bronze Age in Greece and the so-called Aegean Age. Minoan and Mycenaean civilizations were among those civilizations in the Aegean that has made its zenith during this era. Minoan civilization developed on the mountainous areas of Crete. Crete naturally possessed a wide-range of harbors which made it possible for the Minoans to settle and establish ...
Romans copied the Greeks in using Marble to construct their structures structures but they also began to use concrete; which is a mixture of crushed rock and adhesive that begins as a slurry liquid, but eventually hardens into a solid. Concrete was perfected and heavily used by Romans which helped them create great innovations which are still being used today. Such knowledge enabled the Romans to build structures in a variety of shapes since they can create molds in specific forms and pour liquid concrete into them (Kleiner 161).
Ancient Greeks were limited to structures made from square or rectangular bricks, as they solely relied on cut stone. The use of concrete came the inventions of the arch and the dome. The invention of the dome helped create aqueducts and bridges. Aqueducts were designed to carry fresh water to the urban cities from water sources located many miles away. The arch also helped create the construction of theatres and Amphitheaters. The Roman theatre was very similar to the Greek theatre but the orchestra to the Roman theatre was made in a semicircular and was made by stone.
Romans also had very ornate stages which included different levels of columns, pediments and statues like the one seen in the Theatre of Orange (Cartwright 5).
The constriction of the dome created by the Romans led the way for the construction of vaulted ceilings and large covered public space like baths and basilicas. The dome became central in Roman architecture designs, and it was best exemplified in the design of the Hadrian’s Pantheon in Rome (Figure 5), the Baths of Diocletian and the Baths of Caracalla.
Unlike Ancient Greece structures Romans constructed great architectural structures for the people. They created housing and public hygiene features like public and private baths and latrines, under-floor heating in the form of the hypocaust, double glazing, and piped water. These new building techniques helped create multi-story apartment blocks called insulae that catered to large scale accommodation and could reach several floors in height (Bernard).
These two classical architectural styles have heavily influenced the way buildings are created in present time.
Roman architecture was influenced by Ancient Greek architecture and it is evident on some aspects of the style they adopted from that culture. Both Greeks and Romans used the Doric, Ionic and Corinthian style and with this Romans created new Architectural styles. They also learned from the Greeks the importance of architectural solutions, like hydraulics in the construction of arches. The Romans made use of the arch as well as concrete and bricks in the building process.
Roman vs. Greek Civilization Although both Roman and Greek civilizations shared similarities in the areas of art and literature, their differences were many and prominent. Their contrasting aspects rest mainly upon political systems and engineering progress, but there are also several small discrepancies that distinguish between these two societies. This essay will examine these differences and ...