early human development
Human growth and development is a complex process can be influenced by both genetic and environmental factors. Psychologists have done many studies for determining how human growth can be influenced by nature (heredity) or nurture (environment).
Some scientists agreed to the point that both play important roles and interact together to guide the infant maturation. This essay will discuss the influences on early human development leading to prove that nurture has the strongest influence on babies’ maturation.
Nature and nurture have different impacts on determining the human characteristics. For example, the first view point agreed with the idea that newborn babies have a biological basis which leads to the herediterian view point. Scientists such as Darwen claimed humans are born small but mature adults. On the other hand, the other view point such as Watson and Skinner claimed that the brain of the infant is empty or white page, what gets written on this page is what the infant experiences as they grow up(Atkinson et al. (cited in Slaght, Harben & Pallant 2006, p.12).
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In contrast, genetic structure and DNA determine the growth of the cells so that human baby develops into a person rather than a fish or a monkey. In addition, eyes and skin and hair colour are determined by the genes (Atkinson et al. (cited in Slaght, Harben & Pallant 2006, pp.12-13).
In addition to the behaviorists’ view point, environmental events can cause abnormal development to the unborn babies. For instance, if the mother contacts German measles during the period of the organ systems are developed, and if the mother smokes, drinks alcohol too much and drugs, as a result, the baby maybe born deaf, blind or brain damaged (Atkinson et al. (cited in Slaght, Harben & Pallant 2006, p.13).
Today, most psychologists agree that not only does nature but also nurture play very important roles in the course of human development, and these two factors interact together to guide maturity. Hence, as can be seen from most of the researchers that the development of many personal characteristics such as sociability, emotional stability, and motor development of speech and the health of the infant, mainly influences by the environmental factors.
Environment plays an important part in determining the individual’s traits and behaviors. This can be proved by answering the following questions; was the way a person behave is existed in before getting out to life? Or has it developed over time in response to experience? The answer would be experience as Locke believed, as this scholar stated, that humans get their knowledge through senses , no previous knowledge was built in. for example, more recent studies indicate that extra stimulation can hasten the appearance of motor behavior in children to a great extent. This discusses the idea that when children are encouraged and stimulated to speak, the development of speech is accelerated. (Atkinson et al. (cited in Slaght, Harben & Pallant 2006, p.13).
To sum up, there is no doubt that both nature and nurture play important roles in the course of human development. However, most of the ideas led to the conclusion that the influence of nurture on early human development is not only stronger but is an inevitable fact of life.
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