ENCEPHALITIS Encephalitis literally means an inflammation of the brain, but it usually refers to brain inflammation caused by a virus. It may also be called ‘acute viral encephalitis or aseptic encephalitis’; . Encephalitis is an infectious disease of the Central Nervous System characterized by pathologic changes in both the gray and white matter of the spinal cord and brain. It may be due to specific disease entity such as rabies or an arthropod-borne virus (arbovirus), or it may occur as a sequela of influenza, measles, German measles, chicken pox, herpes virus infection, small pox, vaccinia, or other diseases. The specific viruses involved may vary. Exposure can also occur through insect bites, food or drink, or skin contact.
Once the virus has entered the blood stream, it can localize the brain causing inflammation of brain cells and surrounding measures. White blood cells invade the brain tissue as they try to fight off the infection. The brain tissue swells (cerebral edema) and can cause destruction of nerve cells, bleeding with in the brain (intra cerebral hemorrhage), and brain damage. This can cause neurologic deficits such as paralysis, speech changes, increased intracranial pressure, respiratory failure, seizure disorders, and shock can occur.
SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS Mild cases absent superficial reflexes Sudden fever exaggerated deep tendon reflexes Poor appetite opisthotnosLoss of energy rigidity General sick feeling increases resp. tract problems Severe Cases High fever sore throat Severe HA malaise N/V muscle stiffness Stiff neck photophobia Pupils of different sizes visual disturbances Confusion tremors Disorientation spastic or flaccid paralysis Personality changes irritability Convulsions muscle weakness Problems in speech or hearing lethargy Hallucinations delirium Double vision incontinence Difficulty moving an arm or leg ptosis Involuntary movement (including eye) Difficulty walking diplopia Loss of sensation in part of body strabimusMemory loss changes in level of consciousness Drowsiness increased restlessness Coma projectile vomiting Motor dysfunction In infants VS changes Vomiting Bulging of soft spot (fontanelle) Crying that doesn’t stop (intractable crying) ENCEPHALITIS NURSING MEASURES Fluid balance monitored (I&O) Body weight to prevent dehydration and fluid overload and attendant cerebral edema Prescribed drugs (antiviral) IV manitou, , , or other, sedatives, analgesics, and antipyretics are administered and evaluated for effects and adv. Run. (esp those encountered when antiviral agents are administered IV Lights dimmed to decrease HA with out shadows reorientate delirious and confused if risk of seizure protect from injury Small frequent meals nutritional supplements and NGT feedings and parenteral nutrition Oral hygiene and stool softeners or mild laxative Repositioned to prevent neck discomfort and joint pain and to aid exclusions and secretion removal Assurance is offered that behavior changes are usually transitory and sometimes permanent. After acute phase pt is taken to rehabilitation tx of any residual effects.
Marburg Hemorrhagic Fever Marburg hemorrhagic fever is a rare, severe type of hemorrhagic fever that affects both humans and non-human primates. Marburg is the first member of the family Filoviridae (or 'thread' viruses), which also includes the Ebola virus. Like Ebola, Marburg is an enveloped, single-stranded, unsegmented, negative-sense RNA virus. It has the same characteristic filamentous ( ...
Monitor vs and loc at frequent intervals, compare findings with previous assessments. If urinary retention or urinary incontinence develops, indwelling urethral cath. Measure fluid I&O to detect signs of fluid volume deficit and electrolyte imbalances. Assess bowel elimination to determine if enema or stool softer. Reye’s SyndromeBraine swelling and Liver damage Ammonia and damaging chemicals accumulate in blood and cause mental changes (delirium, coma and stupor 4 to 12 years. Winter epidemics and viral illnesses Viral infections given aspirin 90% resp.
tract infection 5 to 7% prior illness (chicken pox) S/S: 5-7 days after viral illness, n / v , mental changes, lethargy, indifference, confusion, delirious, rapid breathing as progresses breathing sluggish, seizures, coma may diet: no cure support heart, lung, and brain function Keep blood levels balanced. ICU. Blood samples, I&O, adjusting blood by IV, b / p , i cp, breathing monitored 1 st recognized in 1963 by acute encephalopathy and fatty infiltration of liver and pancreas, heart, kidney, spleen, and lymph nodes. Mortality rate as high as 80%S/S: without jaundice in 40%, encephalopathy and altered liver function, combative behavior TX: blood electrolytes controlled carefully, liver biopsy NI: Neurological assessment, temp, alleviate hyperthermia, seizure precautions, I&O, impaired hepatic function, (signs of bleeding), tell don’t give aspirin. Peak incidence age 6. 1 st noted in 1974 with 400 cases following epidemics of influenza B outbreak and chicken pox TX: aggressive support to correct metabolic abnormalities (hypoglycemia) and hemorrhage from blood clotting disorders Since 1987 no more than 35 cases / yr nation wide (usually.
Identify the signs and symptoms of common childhood illnesses. There are lots of illnesses that children pick up from chicken pox to cold sores. The first common childhood illness if want to identify the signs and symptoms of is Chicken Pox. The first signsymptom that starts chicken pox of and makes adults aware that the child has this is the rash it begins with a rash and within 12-14 hours will ...