Eugenol is found in the essential oil of cloves and has distinct properties that make it an important product to both food and drug industries. (Bhimrao, et. al, 2004).
To utilize many of eugenol’s characteristic properties, it is necessary to isolate this organic chemical from the other components of cloves. In this experiment, eugenol was isolated from a sample of cloves using a series of techniques including steam distillation, solvent extraction, decantation, and evaporation. A simple-steam distillation apparatus was assembled and a mixture of water and cloves distilled to separate the eugenol from other clove components.
The use of a solvent, methylene chloride was then used to isolate the Eugenol, and then dried using anhydrous sodium sulfate. The Methylene Chloride was then decanted and evaporated yielding the isolated eugenol product. A percentage weight recovery of 3. 6% was calculated and compared to an expected recovery of 10%(Wenquiang, et al. , 2007).
The results suggested possible experimental error, and suggestions for future experiments are considered. Introduction Eugenol is the primary chemical component comprising the oil of cloves, and has a wide range of uses, ranging from food flavoring to dental pharmaceuticals (Bhimrao, et.
The main volatile oil extracted from clove buds is eugenol. It is used in a variety of ways in traditional medicine and can be isolated successfully using a variety of methods. Isolation was performed using steam distillation. A 3. 0% yield of eugenol oil was observed during the experiment. Introduction Eugenol is an essential oil with a formula of C10H12O2 and a member of the phenylpropanoid ...
Eugenol can be isolated from the clove oil using a series of techniques including steam distillation, the use of a solvent such as methylene chloride, and finally the decantaion and evaporation of that solvent which yields the isolated eugenol. Steam distillation is a technique used to isolate the eugenol from cloves and avoid decomposition of the product. This is achieved by mixing two immiscible liquids and utilizing a higher vapor pressure, the sum of the two components, and thus a lower boiling point then either of the two components on their own.
The steam distillation will produce a mixture of eugenol and water which must be separated using a solvent such as methylene chloride. The solvent must subsequently be removed using a drying agent such as anhydrous sodium sulfate which will separate the mixture, allowing for the methylene chloride to be decanted and evaporated, which affords the liquid eugenol. The product will then be weighed and weight percentage recovery will be determined. (Pavia, et al. 2011) Materials and Methods
A standard steam distillation apparatus was assembled using a 500-mL three-necked round-bottom flask as the distillation flask and a 25-mL round-bottom flask as the receiving flask (refer to figure 1).
Fiber glass was used to insulate the distilling head during this procedure. The distilling flask was filled with 36. 0 mL of deionized water mixed with 3. 02g of ground “Spicy World” cloves, and left to soak for about 15 minutes, until thoroughly wetted. The mixture was then distilled, at a rate of about one drop every two to three seconds. Steam Distillation Apparatus Fig. 1 Retrieved from: http://quiz2. chem. arizona.
edu/vip/distillation/steam%20distillation. htm After about 15 mL of distillate was collected, the heating mantle was disabled from the system, and 5. 0 mL of “Fisher Scientific” methylene chloride (Lot #114851 Assay 99. 4%) was added to the distillate, and transferred into a 125-mL separatory funnel. Methylene chloride works as a solvent for eugenol, as eugenol is highly soluble in it, and it separates the aqueous layer from the eugenol because it is denser than water (1. 330 vs. 1. 00 g/mL) (Pavia, 2007).
Introduction The purpose of this experiment is to extract Eugenol from Cloves using steam distillation as a purification technique and to transfer Eugenol from the aqueous phase to the MeCl2 phase. With steam distillation, the boiling point of a mixture of immiscible liquids is lower than the boiling points of the individual components. Water from the steam is one of the components of an ...
The methylene chloride and distillate solution was then shaken vigorously and vented frequently to allow for separation.
Once fully separated, the lower organic layer was then transferred to an Erlenmeyer flask using a Pasteur pipet. This procedure was repeated using a fresh 5. 0 mL portion of Methylene Chloride, and transferred to the same Erlenmeyer flask. Once all of the Methylene chloride was collected, it was then dried for 15 minutes using 1. 0 g of “Fisher Scientific” granular anhydrous Sodium Sulfate (Lot #108250 Assay 99. 4%).
This was conducted to remove any traces of water from the solution. One third of the dried solution excluding the drying agent was then decanted into a previously-weighed medium sized test tube.
The methylene chloride was then evaporated using air, until reduced to a small volume, in which another third was again decanted into the test tube and evaporated as previously stated. This procedure was repeated until all of the Methylene chloride was transferred and evaporated, yielding the isolated eugenol product. The test tube was then reweighed and percent yield recovery was calculated by taking the mass of isolated eugenol and dividing it by the mass of the sample of cloves. Results Following the steam distillation and solvent extraction of 3. 02g of cloves, a test tube containing liquid eugenol had a mass of 13.
68g. The empty test tube weighed in at 13. 57g indicating a recovery mass of . 11g of eugenol oil. This corresponds to a weight percentage recovery of 3. 6% to compare to an expected measure of 10%. (Wenquiang, et al. , 2007).
Discussion 1) Theory of Terpenes- The terpenes are hydrocarbons found in the essential oil of plants. They are arranged in repeating patterns of a five carbon unit which corresponds to a simple five-carbon compound called isoprene, leading to a diagnostic rule for terpenes called the isoprene rule, which states all terpenes must be divisible by isoprene units.
Eugenol is an example of a monoterpene (containing 10 carbons) which was successfully extracted from cloves in this experiment. (Pavia, 2007) Terpenes hold potential interest especially in the fragrance and flavor industries, as well as in the pharmaceutical and chemical industries. A weight percentage recovery of 3. 6% however, is much lower than the expected recovery of 10%, this low percentage recovery can be attributed to experimental error in the transference of the cloves and/or the distillate.
Introduction: This experiment involves an extraction of a natural product using the techniques of steam distillation. The principle component of oil of cloves is an aromatic compound, which is identified by thin layer chromatography (TLC). Eugenol is widely used in dentistry, due to its analgesic, antiseptic balsamic qualities. It is ideal for curative for pulp hyperemia (the soft, sensitive ...
For example, the cloves were added to the three-neck round-bottom flask pre-wetted, which resulted in adhesion of the cloves to the graduated cylinder used for transfer, and thus a loss of a portion of the sample. It can also be considered that some eugenol product may have been lost due to adherence to the sides of the glass walls of the various apparatuses used, including the large 500-mL distillation flask, the 25-ml receiving flask, and the 125-mL separatory funnel.
In future experiments, the cloves should be added to the distilling flask dry and then filled with deionized water, to ensure minimal loss of the sample. Also the use of smaller glassware could aid in avoiding the forfeiture of product to the sides of the glassware. Otherwise, it can be concluded that the specific sample of cloves used in this experiment contained approximately 3. 6% eugenol.