Foul Water Report Purpose: The purpose of this lab is to purify as much foul water as possible by doing three procedures which are, oil water separation, sand filtration, and charcoal absorbtion / filtration . Procedure: 1. Obtain approximately 100 mL of foul water, provided by your teacher. Measure its volume precisely with a graduated cylinder: record the value (with units) in your data table. 2. Examine the properties of your sample color, odor, clarity, presence of solids of oily regions.
Record your observations in the “before treatment” section of your data table. Oil water separation: 1. Place a funnel in a clay triangle supported by a ring clamp and ring stand. Attach a rubber hose to the funnel tip as shown in figure 2. 2. Close the rubber tube by snipping it with your fingers (or by using a pinch clamp).
Shake or stir the foul-water sample. Then pour about half the sample into the funnel and let it stand for a few seconds until the liquid layers separate. (Gentle tapping may encourage oil droplets to float free).
3. Carefully open the tube to release the lower layer into a 150 mL beaker.
When the lower layer has drained out, quickly close the rubber tube. 4. Drain the remaining layer into a second 150 mL beaker. 5. Repeat the steps 2-4 using the remainder of your sample, adding each liquid to the correct beaker. 6.
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Dispose of the top, oily layer as instructed by your teacher. Observe the properties of the remaining layer and measure its volume. Record your observations and data. Save the water sample for the next procedure.
7. Wash the funnel with soap and water. Sand Filtration: 1. Using a straightened paper slip, poke small holed in the bottom of a paper cup. (Fig 3) 2. Add pre-moistened gravel and sand layers to the cup as shown in Fig 4 (the bottom gravel prevents the sand from washing through the holes.
The top gravel keeps the sand from churning up when the sample is poured in. ) 3. Gently pour the sample to be filtered into the cup. Catch the filtrate (filtered water) in a beaker as it drains through. 4. Dispose of the used sand and gravel according to your teachers instructions.
Do not pour sand or gravel into the sink! 5. Observe the properties and measure the volume of the water. Record your results. Save the water sample for the next procedure. Charcoal Absorbtion: 1. Fold a piece of filter paper as shown in Fig 5.
2. Place the folded paper in a funnel. Wet the paper slightly so it adheres to the funnel cone. 3. Place the funnel in a clay triangle supported by a ring clamp so the funnel stem extends 2-3 cm inside a 150 mL beaker. 4.
Place one teaspoon of charcoal in a 125 – 250 mL Erlenmeyer Flask. 5. Pour the water sample into the flask. Shake vigorously.
Then gently pour the liquid through the filter paper. Keep the liquid level below the top of the filter paper and the funnel. 6. If the filtrate is darkened by small charcoal particles, refilter the liquid. Use a clean piece of moistened filter paper.
7. When you are satisfied with the appearance and odor of your purified water sample, pour it into a graduated cylinder. Observe and record the properties and the final volume of the sample. 8. Wash your hands thoroughly before leaving the laboratory. Color Clarity Odor Presence of Oil Presence of solids Volume (mL) Before Treatment Off White Not clear Stink On the top On the bottom 100 mL After Oil-Water Separation Light Yellow Not clear Not bad No oil On the bottom 85 mL After Sand Filtration Darker Yellow Not Clear Not bad No oil Few on Top 75 mL After Charcoal Absorption Pure Clear None No oil None 60 mL.
... include heat treatment, reverse osmosis, distillation, micro-filters, slow sand filters, activated charcoal filter, soil air water treatment, and chemical treatments. Most of these treatments ... can be cleaned and used again. Slow sand filters also know as SSF puts the water through sand, and naturally lets the turbidity die ...