The sociologist Robert Merton proposed that social institutions such as education in schools have functions that are both Manifest and Latent. Merton defined Manifest functions as those objective consequences for a specified unit (person, subgroup, social or cultural system) which contribute to its adjustment or adaptation and were so intended (Merton, 1968).
While, Latent functions as unrecognized and unintended functions (Sociology Guide, 2014).
The proceeding write-up will discuss the manifest functions of education and how a Zambian teacher can facilitate their achievement.
The Manifest functions of education being recognized and intended for involve the transmission of knowledge to students in order to help them contribute back to society, either as knowledge producers themselves (i. e. , scientists) or in other ways, like in business or industry (Hillegass, 2013).
These functions can generally be grouped into six i. e. Socialization, Social control, Social placement, Culture transmission/reproduction, promoting social and political integration and as an agent of change (Javier et al, 2002).
In modern societies, education is the most important agent of socialization after the family. Schools are the first impersonal and collective environment that children encounter. Whereas schools official function is the transmission of knowledge, they also promote certain values- like honesty, perseverance, respect and punctuality and norms such as not cheating on tests or being punctual or not arguing unnecessarily with teachers. Children also learn to deal with authority figures other than their parents and with peers.
For quite some time there has been an on-going debate over the influence sex education has on students, but the argument has transformed itself from whether it should be taught to how it should be dealt with. From religious beliefs, to a variation in schools and to individual teachers, there will always be a contrast in the way children are being taught. But when recent studies suggest the ...
Also for the first time schools introduce students to impersonal assessment of their abilities through grades and official records that will follow the students throughout their educational career (Ayushi, 2011).
Teachers are one of the most influential people regarding the philosophy and lessons of socialization. The teacher has a very important role in the facilitation of socialization in a child’s life (Mercer, 2000).
By teaching and modeling socialization to children, Zambian teachers can help their children to learn the meaning of kindness and generosity.
The students will then be able to eventually go out into society and contribute in a positive, meaningful and productive way. Teachers, in a sense are a child’s provider outside of the child’s home. With regards to Social-Control, Schools are responsible for socializing the young into patterns of conformity. Students learn punctuality, discipline, obedience, and responsible work habits. These skills are necessary to function in other areas of society, such as the world of work.
Teachers, administrators, and parents often rely on the rules and regulations of schools in order to maintain order (Hoffarth, 2012).
The teacher therefore must take onus to ensure that their students are well disciplined and that they develop self-control because self-control is the starting point for effective social control. Self-control by definition maybe considered as, willpower, self-discipline, or conscientiousness. When self-regulation works well, it enables people to alter their behavior so as to conform to rules, plans, promises, ideals, and other standards.
When it fails, any one of a broad range of human problems and misfortunes can arise. Self-regulation is thus a key to success in human life and, when it falls short, a contributing cause that helps explain many forms of human suffering (Baumeister, Schmeichel, & Vohs, 2006).
In this regard, the Zambian teachers’ role would be to Create an environment where self-control is consistently rewarded, instill the right mindset for tackling challenges and learning from failure, encourage kids to practice planning. Education also serves as an agent in transmitting Culture.
To What Extent Should High School Students be allowed to Exercise Freedom of Speech While on Campus I think that nowadays to deal with an issue of students free speech rights is a tough problem for High School administrators. The matter is that students free speech is protected by the First Amendment. Thus it means that students are allowed to exercise free speech while on campus. But what should ...
As an educational institution, schools perform conservable function in order to transmit the dominant culture. In going to school, the young generation is exposed to the belief, norms and values that had long been exist on a particular culture. Pierre Bourdieu a French sociologist, on culture added that the major role of the education system is cultural reproduction. He added that such groups were able to define their own culture as worthy of being sought and possessed and to establish it as the basis for knowledge in the education system. (Bryant, 2013).
A society’s culture can survive far longer than the lifespan of any of its members, because its educational system passes down the folkways and knowledge of one generation to subsequent generations. A culture changes over time, but has a recognizable continuity of basic values and behavioral patterns that distinguishes it from other cultures. That continuity is provided by the educational system (Conklin, 2002).
“Schools are more than institutions where teachers impart skills and lessons; they are places where teachers transmit cultural knowledge,” says sociologist Prudence L.
Carter. “Education is as much about being inculcated with the ways of the ‘culture of power’ as it is about learning to read, count, and think critically” (2005, p. 47) thus the notion of transmitting culture as a function of education is further supported. Education also serves as an agent of change. Educational institution promotes social change, serving as meeting ground where the society’s distinctive belief as well as tradition is shared; thus, education stimulates and bring about desired social change in society.
The teachers role here is to Education also serves as an agent of Social placement. Another benefit that functionalists see in education is sorting—separating students on the basis of merit. Society’s needs demand that the most capable people get channeled into the most important occupations. Schools identify the most capable students early. This is referred to as social placement. Conferring of status is one of the most important functions of education. The amount of education one has is correlated with his class position.
Education of Sex in Schools Sex is something that almost everyone will experience before they die. It is a subject that has been debated about for years. From the debate over birth control to the outbreak of aids. With all this history behind us, sex is becoming even more of an issue. With the new outbreaks of sexually transmitted diseases and the fact that sexually active persons are becoming ...
Education is related to one’s position in the stratification structure in two ways. (1) An evaluation of one’s status is partially decided by what kind of education one has received and (2) Many of the other important criteria of class position such as occupation, income and style of life are partially the result of the type and amount of education one has had (Kumar, 2012).
Teachers here in Zambia understand this and some have applied it in such instances where they put students who perform well in groups to encourage the others to want to be a part of that group.
Furthermore, Education is also known to promote social and Political Integration. Schools function to assimilate people from diverse backgrounds. The common identity and social integration fostered by education contributes to social stability (Hoffarth, 2012).
Teachers can contribute to achieving this function by teaching their students individualism, competition, and patriotism. Change & innovation – schools are a place for one to grow and learn new programs and ideas that would ultimately assist in the growth of society.
In conclusion, as trained, professionals, teachers have a mandate to pass on knowledge and skills to children and adults alike. Similar to religious leaders, teachers must promote social cohesion and integration by molding a diverse population into one through the use of mandatory education laws. Finally, it is a teacher’s role to also teach values such as compliance, regulation, and respect for authority if they are to contribute meaningfully o achieving Manifest functions of education and thereby produce students who can contribute meaningfully in society.
As a prerequisite to writing my Individual paper for Orientation to Exceptional Child class, I interviewed Latoya Pearson, who is a Special Education teacher at Homewood High School here in Homewood, Alabama. Mrs. Pearson attended The University of Alabama where she majored in Psychology and minored in Biology. Mrs. Pearson began working at Homewood High School in 2006 with an emergency teacher’s ...