This is a set of rules that guide accountants and auditors in preparation and audit of financial statements. GAAPs guide financial reporting in public organizations under SEC requirements as well as in private companies and government organizations. These rules are not rigid and therefore allow the accountants and auditors applying them some room to make own judgments.
GAAPs ensure that financial statements prepared under its standards are comparable, consistent, reliable and relevant. Such financial statement aid users in decision-making on such issues as investing decisions, credit worthiness and tax computation. They help accountants make decisions when encountered by a difficult situation. Financial statements prepared under GAAPs also reflect a true picture of the entity’s financial position. (Stickney, C. and R. Weil, 2005)
Historical cost It is a generally accepted accounting principle that applies to preparation of the balance sheet. This principle dictates that an item in the financial statement should be recorded at the amount that it was paid for rather than at market value. This is because the market value fluctuates a lot and those preparing financial statements may apply subjective measures of the market value. Recording assets at their actual cost does not affect a business entity much since assets are held to facilitate the entity’s operations and not for resale.
Accounting mainly involves analyzing, interpretation and reporting of business transaction records. Accounting provides information for decision making to the management. The purpose of accounting is to maintain proper control of finances of an organization. In other words, accounting is an information system whose purpose is to provide essential information about business financial activities. It ...
It is criticized for ignoring the time value of money and market values of the various balance sheet items. However it is preferred as it leaves the management no room to manipulate the values as they would with market values. Financial statements prepared under this principles on therefore more reliable. (Stickney, C. and R. Weil, 2005)
Accrual basis vs. cash basis accounting Accrual basis accounting recognizes revenue in the accounting period it is realized or earned and not necessarily when they are paid up. Revenue is considered realizable if the entity has enough ground to expect cash in future. It is considered earned when the entity has done enough to warrant compensation. The accrual basis also dictates that expenses be charged from revenue they were incurred to produce.
Cash basis accounting on the other hand, requires that revenues is recognized in the accounting period that cash is received and expenses in the period they are paid for. Revenues and expenses involves in credit transactions are therefore not recognized until payment is done. It is usually applied in small organizations with a short credit periods. It is simple and inexpensive since one does not have to maintain several ledger accounts such as accounts payable accounts receivable, prepaid and accrued expenses. It also allows the entities to defer tax payments until it receives the cash.
However accrual basis is more widely used since it gives a fairer view of the financial performance of an entity. It also complies with the accrual and matching concepts under US GAAP. The difference between the two methods is on timing of recording transactions. Cash basis traces all cash flows but fails to match revenues with expenses incurred. Accrual basis matches revenues with expenses incurred but fails to trace cash flows. (Stickney, C. and R. Weil, 2005) To overcome this deficiency, the entity has to prepare a cash flow statement.
Current assets and liabilities vs. non-current items Current assets are cash and assets that can be converted in to cash within a short period probably within a year. They include accounts receivable, inventory and prepaid expenses. Non –current assets are not convertible to cash in a short period and if convertible, there are still non-current as they are used in the entity’s operation.
Current assets are items on a balance sheet. According to Investorwords, current assets equal “…the sum of cash and cash equivalents, accounts receivable, inventory, marketable securities, prepaid expenses, and other assets that could be converted to cash in less than one year,” (2008). If a company goes bankrupt, current assets are easily liquidated. Additionally, current assets are a ...
Non-current assets are either tangible or intangible. Tangible assets include property and plant and machinery while intangibles include goodwill’s and patents. Current liabilities are those liabilities that fall due and are paid up within a year include accounts payable accruals, and tax liability. Non-current liabilities fall due in the long term and include such items long-term debt and deferred income tax.
This classification is useful in determining the financial position of an entity. A business entity should pay its current liabilities with current assets and non-current liabilities with non-current assets and equity. A firm financing its current liabilities with non-current assets is not in a healthy financial position.
Wal-Mart stores Inc The consolidated balance sheet is arranged in the order of liquidity while the cash flow is prepared under the indirect methods. All the statements are prepared in compliance with the US GAAP. Accrual basis accounting is applied and revenues are matched with the expenses incurred to generate them. Assets are recorded at the actual cost of acquisition and not at the market value. The balance sheet items are classified as current and non- current items. (Wal-Mart, 2008)
Wal-Mart Stores cash flow from operating activities is higher than the net income. The company is in a position to meet its financial obligations as they fall due. The cash flow from operating activities is more useful to Wal-Mart since it is harder to manipulate than net income. This is especially so for a retailer where the management can engage in sales boosting activities such as channel stuffing. (Williams J. and J. Carcello, 2006).
Google Inc The corporation’s income statement is prepared under the common sized format is thus easier to analyze. The balance sheet and cash flow statement have been combined in to a single statement devoid of much detail.
The corporation’s cash flow from operating activities is higher than the net income, which is an indication of enough liquidity to meet obligations as they become due. The net income for Google is however more useful than the net cash flow from operating as more details of its calculation is provided in the company’s annual report while the cash flow is given as a final figure. (Google, 2008)
... to failure. Like Beaver (1966), Deakin (1972) defined cash flow as net income plus depreciation, depletion and amortisation. While other researchers (e. ... Nathan, Queensland 4111, Australia) A cash flow statement is an important indicator of financial health because it is possible ... had to adjust for changes in current assets and current liabilities other than cash. Largay and Stickney’s (1980) more ...
Honda worldwide The financial statements are prepared using the accrual basis accounting and historical cost concept. The revenues and expenses are matched and balance sheet items recorded at the actual cost rather than in fair market value. The balance sheet items are classified as current and non-current and are in order of liquidity.
The statements are in compliance with the Japanese financial accounting standards, and are in conformity with the US GAAP. The positive net cash flow from operations indicates that company has enough liquidity to meet its financial obligations. The operating cash flow is more useful since net income does not reflect the firms true financial performance. The cash dividends are paid out cash from operating activities and it was therefore prudent to issue them. (Honda, 2006)
The company is likely to be more profitable and have higher cash flows in 2007. This is because its investment budget both domestically and internationally has grown consistently over time. From the annual report it is clear that while the firm will expand its operations internationally, the growth in revenues and cash flow may be hampered by interest rate fluctuations and exchange rate fluctuations. The effect of these fluctuations is however mitigated through hedges. (Wal-Mart, 2008)
The company future financial out look is healthy and income and cash flow from operating activities are likely to grow in 2007. Constant growth in both measures of performance has been also increased absolutely and also relative to reverse. It has also achieved greater efficiency as the proportion of net income in revenue has growth consistently. The trend is likely to continue in 2007. (Google, 2008)
While the net income has been growing over time the net cash flow from operating activities have declined in 2006. This is an indication that the company may experience cash flow problems in 2007. This company projects that revenues will grow in 2007 in spite of risks posed by interest rate and foreign exchange fluctuations. It however projects the growth to be moderate. (Honda, 2006)
... the financial strength of the business. How the statement of cash flow used in accounting A company will use the statement of cash flows to illustrate cash ... $50,000. To calculate the net cash flow they would subtract accounts receivable from revenues ($80,000-$20,000 = $60,000) to determine cash collected from revenues. Then, subtract accounts payable ...