The world nowadays is facing what is terrorism. Terrorism can be defined as the threat or use of violence with the intent of causing fear in a target group, in order to achieve some objectives e. g. political , where as Globalization is a process rather than an outcome. It is best defined as “the expanding scale, growing magnitude, speeding up and deepening impact of interregional flows and patterns of interaction”. 4 Today’s “globalization” is a product of the 1990s. Globalization is a critical feature of the context in which transnational terrorism has grown.
Despite the tendency to view the current transnational terrorist threat as having religious inspiration, it is more accurate to see it as being motivated, at least in part, by the inequalities between nations as well as within them. It was after Sept. 11th when the US was attacked by the terrorists , the very discourse of international relations and global politics has been transformed. Before the event of Sept. 11th, the important and most talked about issues were geo-economics in nature. International Submits and organization had agendas of Globalization and humanitarian.
But now geopolitics and security concerns have once again become the central issue . There were many improvements regarding politically front where there became a consensus that democracy was not only the best but also the only legitimate way of organizing modern polities. the globalization of the economy was a foregone conclusion as nations scrambled to liberalize their economies in order to live up to the new standards set by the World Trade Organization whereas In the social arena, lifestyle and tastes shaped by multinational consumer corporations were well on the way to change the global popular culture.
... activities directed against democracies like the United States that promote globalization . Terrorism can be viewed as a consequence of poverty and marginalization ... . meteck. org/causesTerrorism. html Linda, Lim, (2002): Keynote Address: Terrorism and Globalization; an International Perspective. Vanderbilt Journal of Transnational Law, Vol. 35 ...
But just after the Sept. 11th event there was great sense of insecurity that because of terrorism inspired the US economy and the government, the two most important forces behind globalization, and that has resulted in a reassertion of sovereignty by the US and other nations. The fear that liberal standards are facilitating terrorism is causing the US and other European Union members to control transborder transactions. There are efforts to stop the resources moving from one place to another and this has lead to greater scrutiny of banks and setting up of strict measures that will prevent the flow of capital.
There is a trend today’s more VISA restriction , keeping an eye on the foreigners just because to prevent any mishap. Governments are engaged in international cooperation in order to monitor the flow of information, people and monies across countries. These measures have resulted in the change of priorities in which means that cost is now second to security. If this state of affairs persists, globalization be retarded and the very instruments that facilitate and accelerate globalization will be blunted.
Globalization and Transnational Terrorism Defined Before exploring the relationship between globalization and transnational terrorism, it is very necessary to understand what often politicized and misinterpreted terms. Globalization is a process rather than an outcome. It is best defined as “the expanding scale, growing magnitude, speeding up and deepening impact of interregional flows and patterns of interaction”. Modern globalization has taken place in three forms: economic, cultural and political, each with its distinct features and effects.
Transnational terrorism is terrorism that has transcended the confines of the territorially defined nation-state in terms of both its objectives and operations. Transnational terrorist groups are usually characterized by a universals ideology, enhanced mobility and communication networks, multinational sources of recruitment and funding, and cross-border operations. Kegley, (2002) Globalization as a Motivation for Terror Globalization is a critical feature of the context in which transnational terrorism has grown.
... factors have contributed to Japan's transnational cultural power in Asia? Do you agree that Japan's transnational cultural power intersects with its postcolonial ... on the receiving end, especially the Asian countries initiate the flow (Nakano, 2002). Also, rising middle class as a result of ... with the fourth phase occurring in 2004 led to the flow of films and dramas between the two countries (Kono & ...
Despite the tendency to view the current transnational terrorist threat as having religious inspiration, it be of no doubt that a part of transnational terrorism is motivated by the inequalities between nations as well as within them . Globalization has its fair share of “discontents”, while terrorists have always “aimed to exploit the frustrations of the common people”. Stapley , (2006).
Globalization, in its various penetrative forms of westernization, secularization, democratization, consumerism and the growth of market capitalism, represents an onslaught to less privileged people in conservative cultures.
It is certain through globalization U. S threaten traditions, religion and way of life, while bringing unfair distributions of wealth and power. This way, the growth of disgruntled communities has proven to be the primary source of recruitment and support for transnational terrorists globally. Nassar(2004) Through Cultural globalization western life and values are projected throughout the world via media and internet. Because of this some Countries feels this has an attack on their religious teachings and cultural traditions, and is generating movements of resistance, including support for transnational terrorism.
Finally, terrorism can most importantly be traced to a fundamental motivation – the struggle for power. US has been very much benefited by the Political globalization where they formed strong alliances with national governments, including undemocratic and oppressive ones. US in order to protect its strategies interests extents its military might internationally, it also supports oppressive regimes and its the presence of US forces in Saudi Arabia, are some of the things that is not accepted by many countries.
Therefore, to the extent that the economic, cultural and political dimensions of the US-led global order impinge upon and undermine Middle Eastern and/or Muslim ways of life, or at least are seen to do so, it elicits from militant Islamists and their supporters violent responses framed in the idiom. Nassar (2004) Globalization as an Enabler of Terror While terrorism aims to repel US-led globalization, it has concurrently harnessed globalization’s features in three primary ways, • Through the exploitation of: new technologies. • Global financial networks. • reduced barriers to cross-border interactions
... fruits of globalization. terrorismAt the same time we have to fight against terrorism with global co-operation. Terrorism is a global problem. It ... our country. Social scientists have mentioned three reasons for joining terrorist acts. These are mainly due to ‘Declivity deprivation’. ... . Our government also has taken measures to check their activities. We have formed the National Security Guard (N.S ...
Because of the above points modern transnational terrorism is and can be very dangerous. Globalization has enabled transnational terrorism through the exploitation of new technologies . Globalization age is known as the Information Revolution age , where revolution of computing , telecommunications and data – transfer took place . Making a proper use of these technological advancements such has internet , mobile phones and satellite telecommunications terrorist –related activities have increased their efficiency , coordination in operations , and communication between national and international borders.
And it is only because of globalization features that terrorist activities or terrorism is no longer confined to a single nation or boundary but it now enjoys expanded range. It is also with the help of advance telecommunications network hat now transnational terrorist groups have defined there organizational structures , sharing principles of horizontal rather than vertical organizational structures. Transnational terrorists organizations are broadening their reach in financial resources too.
They have global financing networks that include legal non-profit charities and businesses, as well as illegal activities such as drug smuggling and kidnapping. Kesselman , (2006) Globalization as an Obstacle to Counter-Terrorism Globalization have contributed a lot in the transnational terrorism with its new capabilities in all sectors , and this impedes the ability of nation-states to fight against terrorism effectively .
The Existence of electronic commerce has weaken the abilities of the states to track , locate and prosecute the illegal activities in the cyber space and this has also played an important role in the effectiveness of the transnational terrorism. Even International institutions have not been up to the mark to promote international law and this has led to an increase in activities by transnational terrorist groups such as money laundering and arms trafficking which are considered as a criminal acts under international law.. In short , global law enforcement instruments have played little if any role in the fight against global terrorism
... also a practical reason to become involved in terrorist activities in other countries. Actions of terrorism cause different feelings for different people, but ... both, for becoming involved in stopping terrorist activities in other countries?, How has the idea of terrorism affected the lives of individual Americans ...
Conclusion The relationship between globalization and transnational terrorism is one that has not been under consideration in current counter-terrorism efforts. When the characteristic of globalization can facilitates transnational terrorism, globalization can be used as a weapon against it. Therefore , its very necessary to first find out the relationship between globalization and terrorism before its too late . References : • Nassar ,Jamal R. (2004).
Globalization and Terrorism: The Migration of Dreams and Nightmares (Globalization (Lanham, MD. ).
Rowman & Littlefield Publishers.
• Mazru , Ali Alamin i , Kafrawi , Shalahudin and Sebuharara ,Ruzima (2004).
Islam: Between Globalization & Counter-terrorism. Africa World Press. • Stapley , Lionel (2006).
Globalization and Terrorism: Death of a Way of Life. Karnac Books • Combs , Cynthia C. (2005).
Terrorism in the 21st Century (4th Edition).
Prentice Hall. • Kegley,Charles W. (2002).
The New Global Terrorism: Characteristics, Causes, Controls. Prentice Hall. • Baylis , John B,Smith, Steve and Owens, Patricia (2008).
The Globalization of World Politics. Oxford University Press. • Kesselman , Mark (2006).
The Politics of Globalization: A Reader. Houghton Mifflin.