1237-40 – Mongols invade Russia, destroying all of its main cities except Novgorod and Pskov. Tatars establish the empire of the Golden Horde in southern Russia.
1552-56 – Ivan the Terrible conquers the Tatar khanates of Kazan and Astrakhan and establishes Russian rule over lower and middle Volga.
1581 – Cossacks begin conquering Siberia
1613 – National council elects Michael Romanov as tsar, heralding the Romanov dynasty which ruled Russia until 1917 revolution.
1689-1725 – Peter the Great introduces far-reaching reforms, including creating a regular conscript army and navy, subordinating the church to himself and creating new government structures.
1772 – 1814 – Russia acquires Crimea as well as parts of Poland, Ukraine, Belarus, Moldova and Georgia
1798-1814 – Russia intervenes in the Revolutionary and Napoleonic wars in France, defeating Napoleon’s invasion in 1812 and participating in his overthrow.
1834-59 – Caucasian war in which Russian forces face determined resistance to their bid to annex North Caucasus.
1853-57 – Crimean war.
1861 – Emancipation Edict ends serfdom; rapid industrialisation leads to growth of working class movement and spread of revolutionary ideas.
1864-65 – The area of what is now the Central Asian republics annexed
1877-78 – Russian-Turkish war.
... their objective to achieve a better system of government for Russia. War showed time and again throughout the 19 th century that ... to the emperor of all Russia." Again this is another example of war having no effect upon the Russian system of government Even ... Even war had no impact on the Tsars intent to preserve the Tsarist system and, ultimately it was Russia and the Russian people ...
1897 – Social Democratic Party founded and in 1903 splits into Bolshevik and Menshevik factions.
Ivan the Terrible
• ( Ivan VI )
• Born in Moscow on 25th august 1530
• most known for his brutal ruling, centralised administration of Russia and expansion of the boundaries of the Russian Empire
• son of Vasilij III and Yelena Glinskaya
• Was only 3 when his father died
• Had a poor health and was greatly ignored and his education was neglected. So wasn’t very knowledgeable.
• Took over the throne in 1547 at the age of seventeen and immediately declared himself Tsar, instead of Grand Duke.
• His first wife was Anastasia Romanov and they also got married in 1547 but she died 13 years later. He married a few more times after that.
• made various reforms of government and society
• ruled up to 1584
• never knew the meaning of moderation, he drank too much, laughed too loudly and hated and loved too fiercely
• had a deaf-mute brother Yuri
• blew up people with explosives, impaled people and fried them,
• Had been poisoned with mercury and as a result went into severe fits of feeling persecuted and wild rages.
• took away all the peasants rights and turned them into serfs
• beat his daughter-in-law, And killed his son after a heated discussion
• reduced the power of boyars
• created a secret police which caused terror in Russia
• Threw small animals off of the top of buildings when he was a boy.
• He just LOVED torture
• Rapped girls
• Kept a list of everyone he had killed.
• Eventually died in 1584 at the age of 54.
Peter the great
• 1672-1725 in Moscow
• ( Peter I )
• Son of Alexis (father) and Natalya ( mother)
• Siblings : Theodore III, Ivan & Sophia
• He had two wives : Eudoxia Lopukhina & Catherine I
• Over all he had 11 children
• He always wanted to learn and was always active
• nearly 7 feet tall and very Hench
• He had a simple desire to push Russia
Russia was always behind the rest of the world in basically all aspects. Their army and navy were practically useless until Peter the Great came along and westernized his nation. Catherine the Great succeeded in making the Russian people more worldly, and cultural. In the time between Peter the Great and Catherine the Great, great social and political reforms were made, which westernized Russia ...
• Was a tars from 1682-1725 (became tsar at the age of 10), But because he was so young he was pushed to become joint ruler with his brother Ivan (who had some mental disabilities) by his sister Sophia’s ruling.
• In 1689 Sophia was over thrown and exiled to a convent
• Ivan died in 1696 which left peter to rule over the monarch on his own
• Peter brought in a series of reforms
• Credited for dragging Russia out of the medieval times, that by the time he had died Russia was considered a leading eastern European state
• He reformed the church, education and areas of Russia’s economy.
• He improved and modernised the government and the army, and also improved the lives of the peasants.
• Made a domestic policy which allowed him to execute an aggressive foreign policy.
• Peter wanted a modern army and navy that would be feared throughout Europe
• Peter brought in influences from the west and introduced the best European engineers, shipbuilders, architects, craftsmen and merchants to come to Russia and modernize the country
• especially interested in military strategies
• he died in 1725 at the age of 52
Catherine the great
• Originally from Germany, converted to orthodoxy and when she was 15 she got married the heir to the Russian throne (Grand Duke Peter of Holstein. Peter Feodorovich).
Grand son of peter the great
• A lot of pressure on there marriage due to wanting a son, and as this didn’t happen empress Elizabeth permitted Catherine to have an affair with an Russian officer(Serge Saltykov), and finally Catherine had a son ( Paul)
• Peter became Tsar peter III in 1762
• She was crowned on September 22, 1762
• Her husband peter had been murdered by a ‘ misunderstanding’
• It is not known whether Catherine had a part in his death.
• Catherine’s main interests were in education and culture
• She read widely and corresponded with many of the prominent thinkers of the era
• Learnt Russian but never lost her accent
• married in St. Petersburg on August 21, 1745
• Has support from peters (Empress Elizabeth) mother but actually disliked her husband peter
When examining the progress of a nation, it is vital to also see what the national psyche behind it was. In Russia the driving motivation was not always consistent. .".. [They] still had difficulty in formulating and sustaining any permanent concept of the 'state' and its interests independent of the family possessions and connections of the ruling dynasty." (Hosking 190) As with many countries of ...
• wide range of internal political reforms
• In 1767 she convened the Legislative Commission to codify Russia’s laws and in the process modernised Russian life
• Helped with the removal of peter from the throne.
• She took power as queen (Tsarina) , calling herself Catherine II
• expanded Russia’s borders to the Black Sea and into central Europe
• promoted westernization and modernization though within the context of her autocratic control over Russia and increasing the control of landed gentry over serfs
• promoted education and the Enlightenment among the elite
• kept up a correspondence with many figures of the Enlightenment in Europe
• often remembered for her many lovers
• Died in 1796, he soon Paul took over the throne after that.
Geography of Russia
Russia is the largest country in the world with the total area 17 075 400 square kilometres (over 6.5 million square miles).
It’s situated in the Eastern part of Europe and Northern part of Asia. The main part of the European territory of Russia is situated within the Eastern European area. The southern border is on the North Caucasus. The main part of the Asian area of Russia is on Zapadno-Sibirskaya Ravnina and Sredne-Sibirskoye Ploskogorye. The territory of Russia spans through 11 times zones. Russia borders with Norway, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Belarus, Poland, Ukraine, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Mongolia, China and North Korea by land, and with Sweden, Turkey, Japan and the USA by sea. Russia has an extremely wide natural resource base including major deposits of oil, natural gas, coal, strategic minerals, timber, diamonds and gold. There are 85 nature reserves and 25 national parks
People of Russia
|Great Russians |55.6 |bashkirs |1.3 |
|Ukrainians |22.4 |Lithuanians |1.2 |
|poles |7.9 |Armenians |1.2 |
Russia has long played a dominant role in the history of the world. Due to its sheer land size and population it is hard to ignore it. One thing that interested me is exactly where the Russian people came from and how was the first empire formed so long ago that was the beginning of the Russian Empire. Some of the things I will try to examine in this paper will be to look at some of the early ...
|White Russians |5.8 |roumanians |1.1 |
|Jews |5 |Estonians |1 |
|kirghiz |4 |mordvinians |1 |
|tartars |3.4 |Georgians |0.8 |
|Finns |3.1 |tadzhiks |0.3 |
|Germans |1.8 |Turkmens |0.3 |
|Latvians |1.4 | | |