Using the health belief model, how can the nurse encourage a patient, who is status post myocardial infarction, to make immediate and permanent behavior changes in his or her eating habits and activity levels especially when the patient views these changes to be insurmountable? Provide a nursing diagnosis with interventions and outcomes to assess the patient’s behavior changes.
First the nurse would have to determine the patient’s understanding of what and how behavior changes can affect his recovery. The nurse could then develop a plan based on this information. Once a teaching plan is developed, the nurse could then divide the plan into small steps that the patient can take and build upon in time so that the task does not overwhelm the patient. For example, the nurse addresses the need for a low salt diet not by telling the patient he cannot enjoy any salty food but that he can modify his diet to gradually decrease his salt intake and by replacing salt with a salt substitute. The nurse will further need to explain the effect of salt on his damaged heart and what it could mean if action is not taken.
This would use the health belief model in that it has explained to the patient what health related action needs to be taken in order to avoid a negative health condition (University, 2012).
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Nursing Diagnosis: Ineffective coping related to inadequate levels of confidence in ability to cope as evidenced by patient’s statement “I just don’t know how I am going to do all of this”. Client Outcome/Goal: patient demonstrates and verbalizes the ability to cope, patient sets and achieves goal made, patient able to maintain goals regarding diet and exercise Nursing Interventions: Help patient set realistic goals, encourage patients to participate in goal setting, development, encourage family participation in patient education
Ackley, MSN, EdS, RN, B. J., & Ladwig, MSN, RN CHTP, HNC, G. B. (2002).
Nursing diagnosis handbook (5th ed.).
St. Louis, MO: Mosby. Health belief model. (2012).
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