The purpose of this exercise is to be able to identify and correctly name the major tissue types in the body, as well as identifying the subcatergories of tissue types while observing them through the microscope and diagrams, and be able to explain the location and function of the tissue types in the body. There are not any real safety concerns for this lab other than making sure correct use and care of the microscope is used. EXERCISE 1: EPITHEILIAL TISSUE
Epithelial Tissue Observations
Single layer of cells, flat in appearance
Cells appear to be squarelike, nuclei are in the middle of each cell, basement membrane, connective tissues Simple Columnar (stomach)
Tall (like a column), elongated nuclei, there are gastric pits visible, basement membrane, microvilli, connective tissue Simple Columnar (duodenum)
Columnar in appearance, microvilli are present as well as Brunner’s glands Stratified Squamous (non-keratinized)
Appear to have a mix of cuboidal and columnar cells in the basal layers, with squamous cells at the top. Pseudostratified Ciliated Columnar
Appears to have more than one layer of column of cells, but the cells appear to be resting on the basal lamina. Cilia are on the top of the cells. Transitional
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Top cells appear to be larger, round, and have 2 nuclei. Connective tissue and a basement membrane Stratified Cuboidal (online)
Double layer of squarelike cells, each having their own nuclei Stratified Columnar (online)
Layers of cuboidal cells on the bottom with a single layer of columnar cells on the top.
A. The study of histology is important in the overall understanding of anatomy and physiology so that you can gain an understanding of the structure and functions of different tissues throughout the body systems. B. Epithelial tissues are named by their shape and cell arrangement. C. Some epithelial tissues are stratified because there are many layers of cells to help protect areas that are known for lots of wear and tear. These types of tissues are generally found on the skin and mouth cavity. D. The functions that are supported by having cuboidal and columnar cells having large, open cytoplasm include absorption, secretion, and allowance for rapid diffusion or transport of substances through the basement membrane. E. Identification of epithelium (see lab manual page 70 for drawings) a. 1 = simple squamous
b. 2=simple columnar
c. 3=pseudostratified columnar
d. 4= stratified squamous
EXERCISE 2: CONNECTIVE TISSUE
Data Table 2: Connective Tissue
Amount and Shape of Cells
Amount of Matrix
Are there fibers? If so, are they parallel or scattered?
Yes, both parallel and scattered
28- spindle shaped
Dense Irregular (online)
40- starlike shaped
Dense Regular: Tendon
Too many to count (TMTC)
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TMTC, round in shape
A. The primary function of connective tissue is to join bodily structures (bones, muscles, etc.) together and to hold tissues (muscles, tendons, organs, etc.) in place. B. The shape of a cell gives us insight into the function of the tissue (flat cells protect, large open cells store or secrete materials, etc.) C. The matrix is non-cellular material, usually made of protein, that provides support for certain tissues and acts as a filter between the tissue cells and the blood. D. Collagen fibers provide support, flexibility, and strength for the connective tissue. E. The limited blood supply of tendons, ligaments, and cartilage could slow the healing process of the body due to fewer nutrients and oxygen that is being delivered via the blood. EXERCISE 3: MUSCLE TISSUE
Data Table 3: Muscle Tissue
Shape and Arrangement of Cells
Thin-elongated cells, large oval nuclei
Cross striations (not as obvious as skeletal), one nucleus present in the center of each cell yes
A. Smooth muscle would be found in the stomach.
B. Smooth muscle differs from skeletal muscle in the way that it does not have striations present and it’s an involuntary muscle. C. Skeletal muscle is considered voluntary because these muscles are used under our conscious control. They are stimulated by impulses from the brain/spinal cord. D. Cardiac muscle is unique because it is an involuntary striated muscle that in sometimes mimics smooth muscle and at other times skeletal muscles. It has the ability to contract involuntarily, but also carries an action potential. However, the appearance of the cells resemble skeletal muscle. EXERCISE 4: NERVOUS TISSUE
A. The function of the nervous tissue is to respond to stimuli and then send impulses to various organs in the body. B. The cell bodies of the neurons are elongated into cell processes so that they can transfer a signal from the dendrites to cells in the body. C. Eyes can’t hear a sound and ears can’t see light because the body is “wired” in such a way that each nerve is designed to respond and transmit specific stimuli from specific areas of the body. D. The difference between a nerve and a neuron is that a neuron is the basic cell of the nervous system and is comprised of the cell body, dendrites, and an axon and is a single cell that has the ability to become excited. A nerve is a bundle of fibers that are made up of many neurons. CONCLUSIONS:
Anatomy of Muscle Cells There are three types of muscle tissue in the human body. These muscle tissues are skeletal muscles, smooth muscles and cardiac muscles. Each of these muscle tissues has it very ... and other local factors. These muscle fibers can also stretch considerably and still maintain their contractile function. John Centore 5 Anatomy & ...
The study of histology is an important part of anatomy and physiology. It allows for the understanding of the structure and function of cells, tissues, and the role that they play throughout our bodies. Without the knowledge of histology little else will make sense in regards to anatomy and physiology. Histology is the foundation of the function of the human body.