Hong Kong is a small island off of the coast of China. For several years it has played a significant role in world trade and politics. It was established as a British colony following the Opium wars in 1841. The Opium Wars began in the early 1800 s when Chineseauthorities began controlling trade of several items, including opium. The wars were started for several reasons, foreigners were becoming especially irritated by the high customs duties that Chinese forced traders to pay.
Several foreigners were also irritated by attempts made by Chineseauthorities to stop the growing import trade of opium. Inthe seventeenth and eighteenth century people of all classes began to use the drug recreation ally. As a result of this use Chinese authorities forbid its import in 1800 (A Short 1).
Despite this restrictive law, opium trade continued to flourish.
In the 1830 s Britain wanted increased trade rights, when they were denied this issue, they forced it. In a response to Chinese seizure and the burning of opium, Britain began to occupy positions around several ports in China (A Short 2).
This is when the Opium Wars began. The Chinese were no match for Britain s technological and tactical superiority. In 1842, China ceded Hong Kong to Britain. Also, several other ports were opened to British trade (A Short 2).
... underground Chinese business man with the lure of profit in the opium trade – then the Opium War is something that it ... Great Britian, Europe could not allow an imbalance trade. So, in 1793, Britain sent a diplomat and successfully was given an ... strategies. If the West was morally short sighted in instigating addiction among the Chinese people and the infiltration and condoning of ...
Several other countries also gained trading rights to Hong Kong in 1844. A second Opium War was fought in 1856, and new ports were opened for trade. After both of the Opium Wars and in the beginnings of World War I millions of people fled to Hong Kong as refugees. Half of Hong Kong s 6. 3 million people are Chinese refugees are descendants of refugees. Britain would have control of HongKong for the next 150 years in which it flourished and became the eighth largest trader in the world (A 50-year 1).
Hong Kong was an ideal place for world trade, it was ago between for Chinese and English trade. By the end of the nineteenth century Hong Kong was flourishing In 1898, Britain acquired Hong Kong s remaining Chinese territories on a 99-year lease (A Family s 2).
After 150 years of British rule, Hong Kong was returned to China on July 1, 1997. China agreed to grant Hong Kong autonomy for 50 year sof being reunited (A Family s 4).
When Hong Kong once again became a part of China people were worried that Hong Kong would lose some of their freedoms, so far China has held to their end of the bargain. Resident s were worried that Communist China will try to change the legal and economic system and curtail the civil liberties of the people of Hong Kong (Stay 1).
The protest around Beijing s Tiananmen Square, on 1989, did not instill any confidence in the people of Hong Kong, but sofar they have not had any worries. The agreement and also what has become a saying is that Hong Kong and China willremain one country, two systems. In 1984, the governments of China and the United Kingdom signed the agreement which would allow China to regain control of Hong Kong and the other territories on July 1, 1997. There are several provisions to this agreement which China is obligated to uphold (A 50-year 1).
First, Hong Kong will remain democratic. When they hold elections, all candidates must be Hong Kong residents. However the candidates eligibility and voting arrangements will be determined by a legislative body from Beijing (A 50-year 3).
The Declaration also provides for several civil liberties. These rights include freedom of speech, freedom of assembly, the right to form labor unions and strike, religious freedom, and the freedom of travel. Private property, ownership of businesses and international investments are also protected under the Declaration.
... .), The Psychology of the Chinese People (Oxford University Press, Hong Kong), pp. 280-293. Hendryx, Steven R. : 1986, 'The China Trade: Making the Deal Work ... an organization's overall effectiveness. Guanxi For over 2000 years, the Chinese culture has inculcated the values of collectivism and order in ...
Freedom of the press is also protected, however several newspapers are owned by China publishers, and some are downplaying stories they feel may upset the Chinese government (A 50-year 3-4).
Hong Kong s laws, which are founded in British common law, will remain relatively unchanged. However, China has implemented the death penalty and uses it liberally. Hong Kong abolished the death penalty in 1993, and it has not been decided whether or no tit will be reinstated (A 50-year 4).
The Declaration assures that Hong Kong will continue to be an international financial capital. However, British visitors are no longer allowed to work in Hong Kong unless they have a work permit.
It continues to be a free port and is allowed to conduct economic and cultural relationships with other countries independent of Chinese control. Also Hong Kong will remain an independent member of the World Trade Organization (A 50-year 3).
Hong Kong currently continues to use its own dollar. Chinese and English remain the official languages of Hong Kong.
Current English names of buildings and roads will remain, although the word Royal has been dropped from some structures. Also, the existing educational system willremain in effect. Even schools which are ran by religious and other organizations. Students are allowed to attend school where they choose and also allowed to study abroad. The same emigration and immigration policies stand. People who leave are still required to have valid travel documents and entry is heavily regulated (A 50-year 5).
Hong Kong s police force continues to be the law enforcement agency. Even though there are 6000 Chinese soldiers are stationed on the island, they are not used for policing duties (A 50-year 6).
At 12: 01 a. m. July 1, 1997 the transition of Hong Kong back to China began to take place.
The British flag was lowered for the last time as the Chinese flag once again flew over Hong Kong. At the same time members of the People s Liberation Army entered Hong Kong (Hernandez 46).
Prince Charles and Chinese President Jiang Zemin watched the ceremonies. Hong Kong s final governor, Chris Patten delivered a speech stating the important role Britain had played in the development and growth of Hong Kong (Palmer 38).
... Chinese society and not control the state, but impair its sovereignty. After the First World War, nationalism began to develop rapidly in China. China ... First World War to the present, China has remained one united nation. From the past to the present, the ideology behind Chinese ... to become one of the most capitalistic nations in the world. China quickly added itself to the global economy by opening ...
He stated that Britain had contributed law, government and the values of a free society. Fireworks lit up the sky and millions of people celebrated.
For the first time since the end of World War II a free people was turned over to a communist nation (Hernandez 47).
Hong Kong will now have a new role in the world order. They will carry China into the 21 st century both politically and technologically. Hong Kong has moved its money and jobs across the border into mainland China, where labor is cheaper and investments are more rewarding. Hong Kong ist he world s eighth largest trader.
Hong Kong which was once region of rice fields is now one of the globe s most prosperous industrialized zones (Hernandez 48).
The wealth that Hong Kong currently creates is outstanding. They have per capita income of $23, 000. With Hong Kong having less than one percent of China s population, they produce one fifth of the wealth in the nation (Hernandez 48).
Sources Cited A Family s Priceless Legacy.
June 15, 1997. February 2, 1999 web HONGKONG/hkhupast. htm>. A 50-year experiment in coexistence. June 1997. February 2, 1999 web handover.
html>. Hernandez, Andres. End of an Empire. Newsweek July 14, 1997: 46-49.
Palmer, Brian. The Longest Goodbye. US News and World Report July 14, 1997: 38-40. A Short History of the Opium Wars.
May 1992. February 2, 1999 web schaffer / heroin /opi war 1. html>. Stay or leave Hard choices in Hong Kong. June 1996. February 2, 1999 web interactive / special /hongkong 319.