Without memory (An active information processing system, that receiveds, organises, stores and retrives information) every moment would be a new experience. Forgetting (the inability to retrive previously stored information) occurs when the information is not availble or accesible. Because psychologists dont know exactly how memories are stored, or what form they take, it is not possible to say exactly how the individual forgets.. However there are several theores suggesting why forgetting occurs, such as the interferance and decay theory. Although it may seem that forgetting is a problem, infact it is necessary to keep humans sane. Otherwise humans would be bombarded with and remember unnecessary information therefor memory is a survival mechanisn (fryod) All information detected by sensory receptors enters the sensory memory. It is the entry area of memory, wehre all the stimuli that bombard the senses are kept in their original form and are not encoded (The process of preparing information for storage in the memory system) and are kept there for a breif time.
When the indidivudal pays attention to information in the sensory memory, the information enters short term memory (STM) It is a memory system that has a limited storage capacity. After around 18 seconds memory in STM that is not rehearsed (the processess of doing something so that the information can be retained in memory. Eg repetition) has fleeted. Miller found that the average capacity of STM was 7 plus or minus 2 bits of information but can be improved by chunking. (Separate peices of information combiined) The information is chunked according to meaning, they can take any form, words, images or phrases. If the infomration in STM is not rehearsed of rehersal is interupted the information disapears, and can never be reterned again.
According to Atkinson and Shiffrin the multi-store memory has 3 distinctive stores; sensory registry, short term memory (STM) and long term memory (LTM). Information from the environment enters the sensory memory for 0. 5 second, if the individual is paying attention this information will enter the STM, from there if the information is rehearsed it will be store into the LTM. Duration is how long ...
Most forgetting occurs due to faliure to encode, meaning that the information had never been placed in LTM. To be encoded in Long Term Mermory (LTM) (The relatively permanent memory system that holds vast amounts of information for a long period of time) the information must be meaningfull of rehearsed. Once it is encoded the information must be consoltiadated, and without it, information is lost. Many psychologists belive that LTM has several types and levels each of which is specialised for different types of knowledge. Procedual memory enables indidivudal to preform certain skills such as typing, tieing shoes, and driving while declaritive memory is used to store facts which is then further divided into semantic memory and episodic memory. Sematic memory containts rules concepts and gereral facts about objects and the world.
Epsiodic memory is personal and containts memories of previous unique experenes and veiws. The cue dependecy theory suggests that to enable the indidivudal to recal information an appropriate cue must be given. Cues can take many forms, where the information is learned can also make a difference. Also conditions and how the indidivudals is feeling affects recal. Many environmental factors can work as context cues. Lavender, livermore.
Many experiements support this theory were done by Tulving, werhe subjects were given lists, then cues to recal the words. Tip of the tounge (TOT) is also emprical evidence for this theroy. It is a feeling that occurs when indidivudal are aware of knowing something, but are unable to retrive information. Even thought this theory has many studies suipporting it, it does not alone account for memory loss over time, and emotional dependeny. The decay theroy suggests that informmation stored will be lost, unless it is revised regularly over time. The interferece theory in LTM suggests that when new material interfears with the retrival of previously stored infomrationg (Retroactive interfececs) however this only occurs if the infomration is similar. The mind unconsiously blocks traumatic experences to protect the indidivudal (Froyed) This theory has been difficult to test, but evidence from various instances suggests that represion takes place in certain circumstaces.
Abstract In this paper, I emphasize there is no such thing as a "bad" memory. Then I show the reader reasons for this explanation. First, I will discuss the three categories of memory: sensory, short term and long term memory. Then an overview of their characteristics and downfalls. Second, I talk about forgetting and the positive and negative aspects of it. Afterwards, I go into the measures of ...
Orgain causes forgetting. Amnesia refers to various memory disorders that can be caused by things such as brain injury, reaction to a drug, of an emotional trauma. Forgetting can occur at the encoding, storage of retrival stage. The exact reason for why the indidivudal forgets information is unknown, but many theories suggest why it occurs. Forgetting unnecessary informmation is neccesary for survival, life can be difficult with a good memory..