How successful was Mao Zedong in dealing with the problems facing China.
Mao Zedong was the sun in the sky .He is considered the greatest leader in Chinese history. Mao revived China from its medieval backwardness and transformed it to a modern nation.When Mao came to power China had enormous problems which he had to deal with. There was vast unemployment, economic backwardness, chaos in the party infrastructure, agriculture was inefficient to feed the hunger stricken and impoverished society. Mao adopted the Cultural Revolution, adopted the 1950 constitution, five year plan, collectivization and the hundred flowers campaign to deal with these problems befalling dealt with the problems of China. This essay is going to explore how and to what extent did Mao Zedong dealt with problems of China.
When Mao came into power there was a problem of refining a shuttered economy in terms of agriculture and unemployment.Ineffecient private farms were grouped into large cooperatives farms through the process of collectivization .Firstly the land was redistributed equally among the peasants and land owners. These joint farm ownerships as argued by Jack Gray were formed with a remarkable degree of attention and reasoning unlike in Russia where they were forced. Grain production was improved and farmers were equipped with new farming methods which were efficient enough to provide food for the people. The chronic food shortages which China was suffering from were dealt with .Since new technology in farming improvised it also resulted in China being lifted from economic backwardness. Agricultural mechanization was improved and the standard of living of Chinese respectively .Mao liberated China from economic exploitation, he freed it from its Confucian past and the rate of economy was growing at an average annual rate of 11-15 percent. He managed to create industrial infrastructure that laid the basis for economic transformation which took place during the reign of Deng Xiaoping.
Deng Xiaoping China has a long history with several great leaders, but none of those leaders have even come close to being as great as Deng Xiaoping. Deng Xiaoping was a loyal communist who sacrificed his own life so his people could have abetter one. During his long political career, he served as a Communistpolitcommissar of the 129 th Division (Liu-Deng Army) from 1929 to 1949. Aspolitcommissar, ...
As argued by Dongping Han Mao’s progress in the industrial society was a weapon designed to preserve communism. At the same time improving the state and improving the ideologies of communism .The Great leap forward which Mao embarked on in 1958 was seen as a means of building the industry and integrating the rich and the poor. He allowed industrial growth through people’s dominated communes which were mainly controlled by the peasants. He was now guaranteed of support. Mao began by nationalizing most private owned business .in 1953 he embarked on a fire year plan concentrating on the development of heavy industries in iron ore and coal production . This was meant to deal with the problem of economic backwardness and lack of fiscal policies in the economy, create employment through industrialization .Mao secured support from Russia in form of finance. In this period China revived from economic ravages and for the first time the issue of inflation was dealt with.
Furthermore, Mao resorted to Hundred Flowers campaign in 1957. Anew class of engineers and technicians was produced which were mainly party cadres who helped the development of China. Most of these members supervised the communes and cooperative farms. In line with this campaign areas such as sanitation ,education and rural poverty were tackled with ernomous enrgy and considerabe success.When Mao came to power China was in a siege of political instability,unstable buruecracy system and factions within his party and the gorvenment.As put forward by Lee Feigon Mao was ‘was a man of no nonsense , blood leader of unparalled abilities’, meaning he had so much zest in dealing with chaotic masses which was in his party and the rest of government. He adopted the constitution of 1950 which gave power to the legislative assembly. The chairman of the republic was to make sure that all laws stated in the constitution were to be implemented and followed without failure .Though the decisions making body was centered on communist politburo but there was restoration of order in China controlled by a more stable government.
In recent years, developing countries have been transformed from very low economic development to being among the highest ranked economically developed states. Examples include Brazil, Russia, India and China (BRIC). This economic growth has been realized due to the adoption of the market socialism structures from their earlier systems which were centrally planned. Besides, a consensus was arrived ...
According Friedlander in his Mao- A Reinterpretation ,the cultural revolution transformed China to a better country .He battled with corruption ,streamlined bureaucracy ,strengthened the economy ,reduced and decentralized Soviet style of leadership which was choking China. He promoted artistic educational reforms and worked towards social justice and the feminist idea. Although urban schools were closed ,he utilized the chance to dismantle the elite and too much formalistic educational system that the country had returned to in 1960s .To deal with problems illiteracy in China he shuffled the resources to rural educational schools, in process by radically expanding China’s educational system.
However to a lesser extent Mao Zedong failed to deal with the above mentioned problems completely or attempted but only to be as a dismal failure. The Great Leap Forward was a failure rather it become a great lurch sideways .By 1961 China was on the brink of economic ruin and internal collapse. As a result of the loss fertile farmlands and poor management of what remained to the rich. As a result annual grain production and harvest in general declined. There was widespread famine and industrial output fell by 12 percent. Mao was forced to admit that his policies were a disaster and doomed to failure. When Mao launched the great proletariat revolution in 1966 to deal with corruption ,revisionism and chaotic bureaucracy it proved to be a failure. The cultural revolution remains a titanic catastrophe in which human rights democracy ,the rule of law and civilization was crushed. During the months of this revolt literally millions of people were sacked ,imprisoned and otherwise ostracized for their bourgeoisie tendencies while many were many executed .Transport systems were disrupted ,urban schools were closed and as well as public offices. Many young people who took part in the cultural revolution crated a so called ‘lost generation ‘ as it is suggested by David Thompson. These young people were robbed off their education and bribed to join the red guard which was full of uneducated pawns.
The Cultural Revolution was designed to destroy all of the culture of pre-communist China, to establish a new more perfect communist society, and to punish his critics of the Great Leap Forward. He sought out to do this by any means possible. The plan he came up with was clever but yet very destructive on the whole of China. Through Mao's domestic diplomacy, he convinced the easiest influenced ...
All the same ,the idea that Mao Zedong revived China from economic backwardness still stands. Though harshly but he managed to deal with the problems of China which were unemployment ,inflation ,chronic food shortages and economic burdens which were befalling China. Chen Yuen concludes that ‘Mao inherited a sinking ship, instead of rescuing it he followed the tide’. This is suggesting that to a certain extent Mao failed to deal with the problems of China in attempting he worsened some, chaos in his party compelled him to take desperate measures like cultural revolution which indeed achieved little as far as the problems of China were concerned .