1. The main legislation that governs the use of medication is The Medicines Acts 1968. The following is a list of legislations that have a direct impact upon the handling of medication within a social care setting. • The Medicines Act 1968 • The Misuse of Drugs Act 1971 • The Misuse of Drugs (Safe Custody) The Children Act 1989 • The Data Protection Act 1998 • The Care Standards Act 2000 • The Health and Social Care Act 2001 • Health and Safety at Work Act (1974) • The Control of Substances Hazardous to health Regulations (1999-COSHH) • Hazardous Waste Regulations (2005) • Mental Capacity Act (2005) • The Access to health records Act (1990).
The Legal Classification system of medication is as follow: As per The Medicines Act 1968 the drugs are classified as below: 1) POM- Prescription only medicines the prescriptions can be issued by doctors, dentists, nurse independent prescribers, pharmacist independent prescribers and supplementary prescribers. The retail sale or supply of product is prohibited. 2) P – Pharmacy Medicines: It includes all those medicines which are not in POM (prescription only medicines) or GSL (general sales list), and includes all medicines made in a pharmacy for retail sale under the exemptions from licensing granted to retail pharmacies.
For examples: Paracetamol, Antibiotic eye drops etc. 3) GSL- General Sales List Those medicinal products which in the opinion of the appropriate minister can with reasonably safety be sold or supplied otherwise by or under the supervision of a pharmacist. The policies and procedures are put in place to make sure that legislation is being followed so that all people in the setting, staff and the people who need care are being cared for are safe, all needs are being met, inclusive practise and diversity is being followed out and that the setting is staying within the law.
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They must reflect on legislation so that the policies and procedures are correct and are the correct way of doing things. For example if a health and safety procedure was put in place and was not in line with legislation then this could cause the setting to get in trouble with the law and could cause harm to the person who was in need of health and safety requirements could become harmed. 2.
Types of medication prescribed and administered to individuals: antibiotics (used to fight infection); analgesics (used to relieve pain); antihistamines (used to relieve allergy symptoms, [ eg hay fever); antacids (used to relieve indigestion); anticoagulants (used to prevent blood clotting, eg following heart attack, thrombosis, some surgical procedures); psychotropic medicine (eg used to treat depression); diuretics (used to get rid of excess fluids in the body); laxatives (used to alleviate constipation); hormones (eg insulin, contraceptives, steroids, Hormone Replacement Therapy); cytotoxic medicines (used to treat some forms of cancer).
The changes that an individual might get if they are having an adverse reaction to a medication is a rash, spotting, confusion, headaches. 3. A combination of Doctors and chemists/Pharmacists prescribe and dispense medication. This is to ensure you are not allergic to it, it works safely with other medications you are taking, and you take the medicine as prescribed. It is the responsibility of the user to read and understand the information on OTC labels. [Next to the medicine itself, label comprehension is the most important part of self-care with OTC medicines. 4.
*Orally – The majority of medicines are administered via this route. Tablets, capsules, liquids, suspensions and mixtures are all examples of medicines administered orally *Sublingually – This is where tablets or liquids are administered under the tongue for speed of absorption. Common examples of medicines administered sublingually are GTN spray and tablets for angina. *Inhalation administration – This method is used mostly for patients who have chronic respiratory problems such as asthma. This enables the medicine to be delivered to the site where it is most needed – the lungs.
... the different routes of medicine administration Oral – the most common and convenient route of medicine administration in the forms of tablets, capsules etc. ... irregularities, such as digoxin Blood pressure check – after administering medication that is used for lowering blood pressure Regular ... area. Applicators – they contain a suspension of liquid medication for e.g. eye, ear or nose infections. ...
Inhalers *Intramuscular (IM) injection administration – This medicine is injected directly into large muscles in the body. Usually in the legs or bottom. This can only be performed by a doctor or trained nurse. *Intravenous (IV) injection administration – The medicine is administered directly into the veins. Medicines are rapidly absorbed into the body via this route, which is advantageous when a situation is life threatening. *Subcutaneous injection administration – With this injection, the medicine is administered directly under the skin.
A common example of a medicine administered via this route is insulin. Medicines are injected in the fat layer beneath the skin. *Instillation administration – With this method, the medicine is in the form of a suspension or liquid that can be instilled in a number of ways; via the eyes, nose or ears. *Rectal administration – Medicines administered into the body by this route are absorbed very quickly. Suppositories are available for this route of administration and are inserted high into the rectum. *Topical application administration – This is where creams, ointments and gels are applied directly to the skin.
They can be used to treat skin conditions or can be used as a delivery route for an analgesic (a painkiller) The majority of medicines are formulated for oral administration. This means they are taken via the mouth, in the form of a tablet, capsule, liquid or suspension. These medicines come in a variety of shapes and sizes, colours and tastes. Solid dose oral formulations are made either as tablets or capsules, and are formulated to aid compliance and reduce adverse effects. As well as tablets and capsules, oral medicines can also be delivered by liquids, suspensions and syrups.
Again, these are formulated to aid compliance. Liquid preparations are measured when administered, using a 2. 5ml or 5ml spoon, oral syringe or a medicine tot. All liquid preparations must be shaken before measuring out the dose. Compliance aids – these are used to encourage and support people to take their medicines. They may promote both concordance and compliance Monitored dosage system (MDS) – An MDS is usually used for solid oral dosage medicines such as tablets or capsules. Inhalers – A variety of different inhalers are available on the market.
... policies and protocols relevant to the administration of medication. The Medicines Act 1968 – It governs the ... and spoons can be used to administer these. Some tablets must not be crushed as this ... also be used and work differently; a liquid is placed into a chamber at the ... routes of medication administration Inhalation – is for when you have, respiratory conditions, inhalers and nebulisers ...
Aerosols, dry powder inhalers, nebulas and powder inhalers are marketed in a variety of preparations from turbo halers, auto halers, accu halers and evo halers Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) and naso gastric (NG) tube administration – some people may not be able to swallow medicines in the conventional way but they could be administered via NG or PEG tubes 6. if someone self-medicates or is actively encouraged to participate in the whole process of taking their medication, depending on their ability, e. g. knowing when they need to repeat their prescription, requesting script from GP/being supported to order it via surgery’s website/taking it to pharmacy, collecting it, knowing the time to take their meds, or getting a glass of water to take their tablets then they are being empowered to be active in the process, not a passive recipient who has no understanding/control over a part of their life, it’s about being person-centred, doing things with the individual, promoting their independence, feelings of self-worth & esteem, hopefully less chance of mistakes being made, abuse occurring.
An individual’s right to have their dignity & privacy respected, following organisations ‘ Policies & Procedures, National Standards, Codes of Conduct, Essential Standards of Quality & Safety, this also relates to consent (Mental Capacity Act 2005) & the right to confidentiality (Data Protection Act. ) It can find the best equipment for the individual to use to take a liquid medication i. e. spoon, cup, syringe etc so that they don’t have to rely on others. Or it can reveal the individual’s ability to remember what to take and when to take it.