Inferior: ‘below’ • Lateral: ‘ towards or on the side of the body’ • Medial: ‘towards the midline of the body’ • Proximal: ‘closer to the main mass of the body’ • Distal: further from the main mass of the body’ Regions of the body: • The Axial Portion: the head, neck, trunk, thorax, abdomen, the pelvis, the perineum • The appendicular portion: The superior extremity, the inferior extremity Terms for body regions and Surface Anatomy Antebrachial: Forearm
Axillary: Armpit Brachial: Upper Arm Sural: Calf, Lower Leg Cervical: Neck Gluteal: Buttocks Inguinal: Groin, root of thigh between lower extremity and abdomen Lumbar: Lower back, between ribs and pelvis Thoracic/ pectoral: chest Sternum: The breastbone Plantar: Sole of the foot Femoral: Thigh, upper leg Orbital: Eye area Buccal/Oral: Mouth Area Umbilical: Around the umbilicus or navel Occipital: Back of the head Costal: Rib Deltoid: Upper shoulder Scapular: Around the area of the scapular on the back Flank: Lateral Margin of the trunk Abdominal: Anterior Torso below the diaphragm
Palmar: palm of the hand Pubic: External genital area Bones and Muscles Exam Question Hints. • May be asked for an example of each of these joints. Most likely Saddle Joint. • May be asked for an example of each of these joints. Most likely Saddle Joint. Eg: Is the elbow proximal or distal to the shoulder? >> it is proximal • Might be one of these muscles and pick out their classification. • Need to know the types of contractions: isometric, isotonic (concentric, eccentric) and relevant examples for such. • Need to know myosin and actin filaments.
Illegal Drugs: Their effects on the body There are many types of drugs, and they have many different effects on the body. Drugs can kill those abuse them in 3 different ways: by overdose, through side effects or bad reactions, and as a means of committing suicide. Some drugs may cause both murderous and suicidal behavior. The hallucinogens, especially PCP, are infamous in this respect. Valium has ...