human cloning Science is one of the greatest powers on Earth and some people compare it to magic. The reason for such controversial attitude is first of all the nature of science, which is the art of explaining everything in this world in scientific terms. The problem is that many people are not ready to accept the new information and learn the other side of many different things they previously had other opinions about. People couldnt believe the Earth is round-shaped, inquisition burned scientists. However one thing the humanity had to learn is that the work of art of science would never be stopped and any new information would not be forgotten. It is impossible to hide the truth from people and it is impossible to believe in values that are wrong forever.
The subject of many talks today is the issue of human cloning. Nobody could predict cloning would become such a two-fold problem. However, I am strongly convinced that the benefits of human cloning overweight costs and that is why human cloning has to be permitted. At the same time, it is also important to take into consideration the arguments of the opposition. The adequate solution may be found only after the careful analysis of arguments from both sides which I am about to perform. This question is mainly social one because it is the society that must make a choice and define costs and benefits. The main question for now is what advantage can be taken? But before that it is important to define cloning and briefly present the scientific information. Clone, also spelled Clon, is thepopulation of genetically identical cells or organisms that are derived originally from a single original cell or organism by asexual methods (Britannica) 1.
... "factory" and the male the genetic information (Human Cloning). Reasons why people want cloning, are diverse and the people themselves, such as: Recover someone who was ... next five years" (Dixon). But it is also noteworthy that science, the public, and the government that when heart transplants first ...
There are two different procedures usually referred to as cloning. The first is Embryo Cloning and the second is Adult DNA cloning. Embryo cloning has been successfully carried out for years on many species of animals. It involves removing one or more cells from an embryo and encouraging the cell to develop into a separate embryo with the same DNA as the original (Robinson) 2. Adult DNA cloning has been used to clone a sheep and other animals. It involves removing the DNA from an embryo and replacing it with the DNA from another animal. Then, the embryo is allowed to develop into a new animal with the same DNA as the donor.
It has not been tried on humans (Robinson) 2. Talking about human cloning it is important to define what benefits the society can get. In this particular case those benefits can be classified as medical and social. Let me start from the medical benefits. First of all it is the never-ending supply of donor organs. Cloning will provide a continuous supply of donor organs for patients. Organs could be cloned selectively or an entire body could be cloned. This means the great benefit for health care worldwide. The major problem that exists for today can be eliminated.
Another case is that human bodies usually reject the matter that seems foreign and uses antibodies to attack them. Cloned organs are the exact genetic match to the host individual and therefore the rejection is impossible. Another problem solved. Perhaps, one of the most important problems that can be solved with the help of cloning is cancer disease. Cloning will help to understand the mysteries of cancer and the rapid cell growth. With the help of human cloning such problems as the regeneration of damaged cells and body parts can be resolved. This can be useful for curing many muscular diseases. One of the most important features of human cloning is that it would give a great possibility for further researches.
... another method. A possibility for human cloning that has been proposed is that of the embryos that were cloned and not implanted would be ... by Hall and Stillman in 1993. They used embryos that contained too much genetic information and got as far as 32-cell ... an explanation of cloning using yeast. Buying DNA A company that offers to send various types of DNA through the mail. Genetic studies The ...
For example, the cause of spontaneous abortions can be determined with the help of cloning. Another issue is that cloning may help scientists to understand many traits such as obesity and determine if they are inherited or not. The same principle goes for sexual behavior. With the help of cloning it will be possible to determine if it is learned behavior or it is passed genetically to individuals. And, finally, human cloning can be used to wipe out genetic diseases. The embryo could be cloned and tested for genetic diseases. If the embryo tests positive then all the clones would be destroyed.
If the embryo tests negative for diseases then one of the clones could be implanted to produce a healthy child (DeltaPoint) 3. However, it is important to consider also social impacts of human cloning. Individuals will have the opportunity to start a new life from the very beginning or give birth to an identical child after unfortunate death. People will have the opportunity for certain reproduction. This means that if one of the partners is suffering from infertility, then cloning will help a lot. Taken into consideration the fact that individuality of a cloned individual will develop independently, it would be possible to suggest the idea of catalog children, meaning parents may choose the picture of a child they want, then order its embryo and implant it into the woman. Finally, theres the possibility for raising the dead by means of cloning.
The studies state that DNA donor need not to be alive when cloning occurs. This means deceased family members or just people we love can be cloned and given second life. Now, let me move on and analyse the question of morality of human cloning. Some talents seem to be genetically influenced. Musical ability seems to run in families. Cloning using the DNA from the cell of an adult with the desired traits or talents might produce an infant with similar potential.
Two lesbians could elect to have a child by adult DNA cloning rather than by artificial insemination by a man’s sperm. Each would then contribute part of her body to the fertilized ovum: one woman would donate the ovum, which contains some genetic material in its mitochondria, the other woman the nuclear genetic material. Both would have parts of their bodies involved in the conception. They might find this more satisfactory than in-vitro fertilization using a man’s sperm (Robinson) 2. We can see the benefits of cloning are great, but it is also important to consider the opposite viewpoints. One of the biggest barriers for cloning is the statement developed by people in opposition to cloning is that theres no guarantee that the first cloned humans will be normal.
What first comes to mind when the word cloning is used Weird sci-fi movies, mad scientists, and futuristic themes Well, the idea of cloning has been experimented on since the 1970 s with frogs and toads, and the cloning of plants hasnt been any big thing. The controversy over this issue was sparked by a miraculous event on July 5, 1996. This is the day Dolly was successfully cloned, using a method ...
They may suffer from many different disorders that are not detectible by ultrasound or they may be born disabled. This makes up a serious problem. People cant let such thing to happen. Another concern is that a cloned chilled from the DNA of his father would be his exact twin and this can create some serious psychological difficulties. Another serious problem is the religious objections to cloning. Many people say cloned humans will be born without souls. They say the soul enters the body when the sperm fertilizes the ovum.
It is hard to comment on that, however it is important to take this fact into consideration since millions of people believe that. Having researched the issues of human cloning I can make a set of conclusions. First of all, human cloning can bring a lot of benefits for the society both medical and social. However, there are still unanswered questions. Nobody can predict what the first cloned humans are going to be like. Another problem is that religious groups mostly oppose cloning stating cloned humans will have no soul. Taking into consideration the powerful impact of religious groups on the public opinion it is not hard to guess on the problems human cloning is going to face. However, it is obvious that scientists must continue their researches, because it is clear that benefits overweight costs and on a certain point human cloning is likely to change the world. Human cloning is the powerful and helpful tool, which can bring the humanity into the new level of existence. Word Count: 1335
Clone, Encyclopaedia Britannica Article (http://www.britannica.com/eb/article?eu=24819&toc id=0).
Ethical Aspects of Human Cloning, by Bruce Robinson (http://www.religioustolerance.org/clo_intr.htm).
Human Cloning and Re-Engineering, DeltaPoint (http://cac.psu.edu/~gsg109/qs/contents.html).
Human Cloning Web Site (http://www.cs.virginia.edu/~jones/tmp352/projects 98/group1/home.html)..
Debate of human cloning In the past several decades, human cloning has turned from a laboratory dream to worldwide disputes. There are enough opinions supporting both bad and good consequences of human cloning. Human cloning sets a number of difficult questions about human independence, self-esteem, and individuality. Will human cloning be a huge step for man, or will it result in moral demise? ...