human cloning SHOULD BE BANNED. At the present time the science has achieved such high level of the development that it became possible to clone not only the cells but the whole organisms. Up to now such experiments were made on the representatives of the animal kingdom. In the late 90 s the whole humanity could make sure of such experiment. The news that splashed over the newspaper front pages around the world in 1997 was about sheep Dolly. Dolly was the first mammal to have been successfully cloned from an adult cell.
Actually she was born on July 5, 1996 but her creators the scientists from Roslin Institute in Scotland didn’t announce about her birth until February 22, 1997. Her birth was proclaimed as one of the most significant scientific breakthroughs of the 90 s. Moreover, if the sheep Dolly’s case was successful so human cloning could be possible. From the technical point of view there are no problems. But there are some ethical and moral issues that have to be considered in making the decision to ban or not human cloning. Approximately 46 countries have formally banned human cloning.
Among them are such countries as Australia, Canada, France, Germany, Japan, the United Kingdom, Russia, and many others. I completely agree with these countries. And I have several reasons to think so. But before advancing the arguments I want to specify that I’m against reproductive cloning but not therapeutic cloning.
... January 1998 Nineteen European nations sign a ban on human cloning. Click here to view these countries Richard Seed, a physicist from Chicago, announces ... Successful clone of adult sheep born; clone named "Dolly" after the famous country singer February 23, 1997 Scientists at the Roslin Institute in ...
Nowadays there are a lot of situations when people need organ transplantation for the treatment of some diseases such as cancer, heart disease, etc. In this case therapeutic cloning can be important and necessary. But reproductive cloning is another case. So let’s move to my arguments.
The first reason for banning human cloning is the unacceptable medical risks. The first risk is unimproved cloning technology. Nearly 98% of cloning efforts end in failure. For example, in order to clone the sheep Dolly 277 embryos were needed, from which only one healthy and viable sheep was produced. The other fetuses were hideously deformed and either died or aborted. The second risk is short term living of the clone.
Again take up the Dolly’s case. Taking into consideration that sheep can live to 11 or 12 years, Dolly died at the age of 5 years old. And still the cases of long term consequences are not known. Lastly, the cell taken from adult donor could have accumulated the genetic mutations during its years that could give the resulting clone a predisposition to cancer or other diseases. The second argument is that human reproductive cloning is not necessary.
Supporters of the human cloning can say that reproductive cloning can allow hetero and homosexual couples have children genetically related to them both. It might be better for the welfare of the child to be born into a happy relationship. But there are another ways to have children, for example, in vitro fertilization and the practice of sperm donation. These ways are closer to natural one. These ways allow the creation of new person with his / her own individuality. But cloning the child we disable him to be an individual one.
This is unethical. Just imagine for a moment that you are the clone of your parent. Yes, you are genetically related to your parents. But are you unique? No. Do you still want to be the clone of your parent? So can we decide whether the future clone child is glad to be an exact copy of his / her parent? The third argument is that cloning will lead to degradation of the humanity. The cloning can lead to a lack of diversity amongst the human population.
... during most pregnancies involving! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! clones (Weiss A 1). Cloning humans would be just plain wrong. "The likelihood that a ... all cloning attempts. Any attempts to clone a human with today's technology would almost always produce a child with ... also does not support therapeutic cloning. "In the United States, both therapeutic and reproductive human cloning are barred from federal funding ...
As the result the natural process of evolution will discontinue, so humankind will stop to develop, the consequence may be the bigger susceptibility to diseases, and simply the humanity will stay on the same level. Human cloning adherents can argue that human reproductive cloning will allow reproducing such great geniuses like Albert Einstein, Michelangelo and others. These geniuses could make more than they have done for the development of the humankind. But they were geniuses at their time. It’s not of necessity that they will stay geniuses. As a matter of fact the person is genius because he / she is unique and he / she is not similar to others.
Cloning these geniuses we rob them of their uniqueness. To conclude my speech I’d like to underline the main three arguments against human cloning. They are unacceptable medical risks, needless of the reproductive cloning, and the danger of degradation of the humanity. Banning the human cloning can help us to keep that little part of moral and ethical values in our present material world. RESOURCES: 1. Dolly the sheep, 1996-2003.
Science museum. 20 Jan. 20052. Human Cloning Policies. Genetics and Society. 19 Feb.
20053. Practical Uses of Cloning. Human Cloning. 8 Apr.