Human Genome Project (HGP) is a scientific project, coordinated by U.S. Department of Energy and National Institute of Health. It started in 1993 and was completed in 2003. Projects main goals were: identification of genes in human DNA, determining DNA chemical sequences and storing information in HGP database, which is accessible to general public at projects website. The information that is found there can be divided in 5 categories: HGP information, scientific research database, related publications, ethical and legal information, medicinal information. I would describe information provided at HGP as information of public concern.
Although, it is more likely that the specific categories of people would be more interested in reviewing this information, such as healthcare workers, sociologists and biology practitioners, it also appears that ordinary citizens interest towards the issue of genetics will increase, as time goes by. Up to this date, HGP has identified approximately 25,000 genes in human DNA and close to 3 billion DNA chemical base pairs. HGPs goal continues to be analyzing and interpreting the received information. Chromosome 1 of 22 autosomal chromosomes has 263 million bases. Its genetic corruption can lead to such diseases as: brain cancer, prostate cancer, muscular dystrophy, cataracts, colon cancer, glycogen storage disease, leukemia and schizophrenia. Chromosome X has 164 million bases.
If corrupted, it can become responsible for genetic passage of such diseases as: mental retardation, melanoma, Partington syndrome, Aicardi syndrome, optic atrophy, dent disease, coats disease and breast cancer. Cystic fibrosis (CF) is fatal genetic disease. It causes the body to produce thick, sticky mucus that clogs the lungs. This disease caused by a defective gene, which is usually found in chromosome 3. Diabetes, type 1 is a genetic disease, which affects the body’s ability to manufacture and use insulin. At least 3 chromosomes carry these disease properties 6, 7 and 11. Huntington disease (HD) is an inherited disease, which usually leads to dementia.
Outline Thesis: Large corporations, such as insurance companies, and governments are looking to save money on future policyholders through the use of genetic testing. General information on the Human Genome Project Time of discussion leading up to implementation Who was involved Where does the funding come from Insurance Companies and discrimination Discrimination against unborn children Genetic ...
The mutated gene, which is the cause of this disease, is found in chromosome 4. Tay-Sachs disease is an inherited disease, which affects the process of metabolism. Its severity varies, but in many cases it leads to dementia, blindness and early death. Tay-Sacs is caused by mutation of HEXA gene, in chromosome 15. Huntington disease (HD) is a genetic disorder of the central nervous system. This disease usually occurs in elderly people, but younger individuals are also susceptible to it if theyre genetically preconditioned. The biological effects of this disease include the loss of motor control, loss of memory, personality change and mental retardation. This disease is autosomal dominant, this means that the mutated gene involved, is on an autosomal chromosome and not one of the sex a chromosome. This shows us that both males and females carry equal likehood of passing HD to next generations; therefore HD genetic trait is dominant. About 30,000 Americans have HD and about 150,000 more are at risk of inheriting the disease from a parent.
This disease is more common in closed social groups. Among Ashkenazi Jews, this disease accounts for 30%. Just like with the case with every genetic disorder, nature has biological mechanism of localizing HP, for the purpose of its prevention in next generation. If we use Punnett Squares to predict the risk for the disorder in children of parents with different genotypes for that trait, we will see that there is a 50% chance at each pregnancy that a child of an affected parent will receive the gene for Huntington disease. There are ethical issues that are related to parents genetic counseling, since majority of people are under influence of conventional morality, when in fact, only health and beauty can be moral. Contemporary society is not ready yet to accept principles of eugenics and racial hygiene. One among numerous sites, dedicated to research of genetic disorders is called Genetics of Huntington Disease and it can be found at http://www.kumc.edu/hospital/huntingtons/genetics. html.
Tay Sachs disease (TSD) What is TSD? TSD is a rare hereditary disease caused by a genetic mutation that leaves the body unable to produce an enzyme (hex A) necessary for fat metabolism in nerve cells, producing central nervous system degeneration. The disease is named for a British ophthalmologist, Warren Tay, who first described the disease, in 1881, and a New York neurologist, Bernard Sachs, who ...
I learned from this site that, among other factors that define the risk of acquiring genetic disease, is peoples ethnical affiliation.
Human Genome Project. (27 October, 2004) U.S. Department of Energy. 21 February, 2005 http://www.ornl.gov/sci/techresources/Human_Genome /home.shtml.