In the early 1980s numerous books and articles were published by American Business Schools professors to support the widely recognition of HRM concept, and the environmental volatility in today’s contemporary business that specifically identify conflict and heterogeneity (Soderlund and Bredin, 2005).
Due to its diverse origins and many influences, HRM covers essential aspects of central concern in organisations such as individual, practice, educational theory, social and organisational psychology, sociology, industrial relations, and organisational theory (Soderlund and Bredin, 2005)..
To date there is no widely acceptable definition for HRM and what it entirely involves in our daily business world (Brewster and Larsen, 2000).
Fewer satisfactory definitions have been propounded by different writer such as (Soderlund and Bredin, 2005), whom perceived HRM as 1) an ‘executive personnel responsibility’, that mainly concern with management activities; 2) classified HRM as management philosophy that concerns with people treatment and, finally 3) discerned HRM as interaction management between the firm and its people.
Due the conflicting theoretical conception and hypothetical disagreement about the general acceptance of the definition, Price (2007) definition would be used to in this literature because it better explained and cover huge areas of the study. According to Price (2007): “A philosophy of resource management Hrm People">people management based on the belief that human resources are uniquely important to sustained business success.
Implications of business process management for operations management Colin Armistead and Simon Machin The Business School at Bournemouth University, Bournemouth, UK Introduction Operations management is concerned with the management of people, processes, technology and other resources in order to produce goods and services. There is a resonance from operations management into business process ...
An organization gains competitive advantage by using its people effectively, drawing on their expertise and ingenuity to meet clearly defined objectives. Human resource management is aimed at recruiting capable, flexible and committed people, managing and rewarding their performance and developing key competencies”. The dynamic and uncertainty in HR contemporary organisations are tremendously moving towards a radical dimension (Analoui, 2007).
Lado and Wilson (1994, p 701) outlined a separate interconnected activities, roles, processes and other aspects that are aimed to attracting, maintaining, and developing the firm HR activities in contemporary organisations, such as: 1) planning; 2) recruitment and selection 3) training; 4) performance management; 5) benefits and rewards; 6) compensation; 7) and 8) career development (Banhegyi et al. , (2008) and (Robbins & Coulter, (2002).
1. 2. 1 Planning Planning in Human Resource has been discussed in different HRM contexts for many years (Wren, 1994).
HR planning was initially an important aspect of ob analyses and was often used as bases for determining strengths and weaknesses among the employees and to develop the skills and competences they needed (Gallagher, 2000).
As individual career plans started to gain more popularity, companies gradually started to pay more attention to the certain skills and competences among individual employees as a way of aligning and dealing with the companies’ succession planning (Kuratko and Morris (2002).
As this aspect been scrutinised rigorously by many researchers, HR planning is still a complicating and complex issue of debate within the HR practices (Schuler, 1986).
In 1978, McBeath addressed his view of HR planning by highlighting a set of issues that he regarded as being important with respect to the HR planning. These were; An estimation of how many people the organization needed for the future A determination of what ability, skills, and knowledge requires to compete An evaluation of employees ability, skills and existing knowledge A determination of how the company could fill the identified competence gaps Storey (1995) argues that HR planning today is a very important task of every contemporary organization’s HR department.
Employee Empowerment A flat organization is a culture of ownership and partnership, it is an organization that uses teams to increase efficiency, responsiveness and flexibility. The focus is on customer satisfaction, work is directly connected, to customer processes. Employees in a flat organization know the business, they have been delegated the power to think for the whole company. Flat ...
According to him, HR planning mainly involves the identification of skills and competence within the organization, the filling of identified competence gaps, and the facilitation of movements of employees within the organisation. An essential part of the HR planning is the succession planning which aims to ensure the supply of individuals and filling of gaps on senior key positions when they become vacant and replenish competences to areas where they are most valued (Wolfe, 1996).
1. 2. 2 Recruitment and selection
In organization the system that responsible for placing diversifies talents throughout is refers to as recruitment and selection processes. The process of recruitment and selection is an ethical approach by a firm to seek and attract the most competent and suitable applicant for a vacant position (Analoui, 2007).
Price (2007) inferred that recruitment strategies can be divided in three significant approaches: suitability – the most qualified applicant for the position, malleability – moulded within the cultural norms, and flexibility – the most reliable and versatility employee.
These factors are quite complicating and can be easily mistaken during the process of hiring employees. Suitability is a critical aspect hence it mainly concerned with the process of hiring the most suitable applicant for the position. The process of selecting and retaining potential employees is the greatest organisational competitive battle in modern days (Pfeffer, 1994).
Having the greatest talent simply implies that the firm will be able to compete aggressively in the market.