Important ethical consideration in Research
Ethics refers to well base standards of right and wrong that prescribe what humans ought to do, usually in terms of rights, obligations, benefits to society, fairness, or specific virtues. Ethical standards also include those command virtues of honesty, compassion, and loyalty. And, ethical standards include standards relating to rights, such as the right to life, the right to freedom from injury, and the right to privacy. Such standards are adequate standards of ethics because they are supported by consistent and well-founded reasons (Markkula Center for Applied Ethics, 2008).
Ethical standards are usually learnt at home, church, schools and in other social environment. The sense of right and wrong is usually acquired during childhood, however moral development occurs throughout the developmental lifespan.
Most societies use laws to enforce widely accepted moral standards and ethical and legal rules use similar concepts, however, it is important to remember that ethics and law are not the same, ethical norms tend to be boarder and more informal than laws. Being ethical is not the same as following the law. The law often incorporates ethical standards to which most citizens subscribe. But laws, like feelings, can deviate from what is ethical. An action may be legal but unethical or illegal but ethical. Ethical concepts and principles can also be used to criticize, evaluate, propose or interpret laws (Resnik, 2010).
... If your workplace lacks ethical standards, your employer risks losing valuable employees and customers and possibly even more Federal laws impose heavier penalties ... the right path. It’s very difficult to define ethics in the workplace. Generally,“being ethical” involves conducting yourself in accordance with accepted ...
Although codes, policies, and principles are very important and useful, like any set of rules, they do not cover every situation that arises in research, they often conflict, and they require considerable interpretation. It is therefore important for researchers to learn how to interpret, assess, and apply various research rules and how to make decisions about how to act in various situations. The vast majority of decisions that people must make in the conduct of research involve the straightforward application of ethical rules.
There are many reasons why it is important to adhere to ethical norms in research. Some of these norms promote the aims of research, such as knowledge, truth and avoidance of error. Research must conform to generally accepted scientific principles based on accurately performed experimentation and on a thorough knowledge of the scientific literature (Greenfield, 1996, p.31).
Ethical considerations act against researchers falsifying, fabricating, or misrepresenting research data, thereby promoting the truth of the research. Research involves a great deal of teamwork, which include collaboration and coordination among different disciplines and institutions, ethical standards seek to promote the necessary values such as, as trust, accountability, mutual respect, and fairness. Ethical considerations in research also helps to promote a variety of other important moral and social values. These include values such as social responsibility, human rights, health and safety, compliance with the law and animal welfare, etc. If the research does not follow certain ethics the information could hold less value and could also prove harmful to the humans and animal subjects. Concern for individual rights needs to be balanced against the benefits to society that may accrue from research activity.
Many of the ethical norms also helps to ensure that researchers who are funded by the public money can be held accountable to the public. There are some circumstances in which conflicts of interest could compromise the integrity of research or even lead to research misconduct, for example, by the distortion of research outcomes as a result of personal financial interests of a researcher. According to Greenfield (1996), every research project should be preceded by careful assessment of predictable risks in comparison with foreseeable benefits. Special caution must be exercised in the conduct of research which may affect the environment .If published results are deceptive then, future research may be misdirected.
* Descriptive — survey, historical, content analysis, qualitative * Associational — correlational, causal-comparative * Intervention — experimental * Functions of Research Research corrects perceptions as well as expands them. Research gathers information on subjects or phenomena we lack or have little knowledge about. Research develops and evaluates concepts, practices and ...
Ethical considerations also promote public support for research. It is more likely that people will support research if it is of high standard and reliability. Greenfield (1996) stated the in publication of the result, the accuracy of the result s should be preserved. Report of research not in accordance with the ethics should not be accepted for publication. In general, researchers have an obligation to conform to the ethical standards of the society in which they conduct their work.
Ethical consideration in research seeks to provide ethical protections for research participants of social and medical research. Participants should not be forced to participate in research, they should do so willingly. Participants must be fully informed about the procedures and risks involved in research and must give their consent to participate, through a consent form. Ethical standards also seek to protect participant from situation where they might be exposed to physical and psychological harm due to their participation. There are two standards that are applied to protect the privacy of research participants, these are confidentially and anonymity. Confidentially means that no information on participants should be made available to anyone not directly involved in the study while anonymity means that participants should remain anonymous throughout the study (Trochim, 2006).
Fraud and misconduct are also ethical consideration in research. These are any deliberate and serious deviation from acceptable practices such as fabrication, falsification and plagiarism. Most cases of plagiarism can be avoided, by citing sources. Simply acknowledging that certain material has been borrowed, and providing the information necessary to find that source, is usually enough to prevent plagiarism. Fraud affects everyone. It delays getting new therapy to the public but more importantly it violates the people who was brave enough to participate. Not reporting fraud and research misconduct makes you just as guilty as the person doing it.
BEST PRACTICES IN CONDUCTING QUALITATIVE RESEA RCH Qualitative research is quite hard to define, because the terms used have very little similarities with ordinary science (OConnor 2004). One attempt at definition is that of it involving methods of data collection and analysis that are non-quantitative, one that uses unreconstructed logic to get what is really real the quality, meaning, context, ...
Ethical considerations are important for the conduct of research. Ethical considerations in research establish principles and procedures that governs both researchers and participants. It ensures that the moral or legal rights of any potential participants are respected, it also promotes trust and accountability. Imagine what could happen in conducting a research if there was no guidelines, procedures or ethical standards to govern researcher. Researcher could do just about anything they wish to do without thinking of the danger or harm that participants could be exposed to, they would be alot of fraud and misconduct and plagiarism etc. Majority of decisions that people must make in the conduct of research involve the straightforward application of ethical rules. Therefore ethical considerations are very important as there needs to be a procedure that assures that researchers will consider all relevant ethical issues in conducting research.