The Indus valley civilization was the largest of four ancient urban civilizations Mesopotamia, Egypt, South Asia, and China. It was discovered in the 1990’s but most of its ruins remain to be excavated. The Indus civilization was huge; it covered from Mumbai (in Marashta, India) in south up to Himalayas and northern Afghanistan in north. The far west of the Indus civilization is as far west as Arabian Sea coast (in Baluchistan, Pakistan) next to the Iranian border. The east of that large civilization ends a thousand miles to the east in India, beyond India’s capital (New Delhi in Uttar Pradesh state).
World History witnessed wars, struggles, succession wars, revolts, since its beginning. Indus valley civilization was the only civilization where there was no war, no struggles, no revolts. The Indus valley people made deals not war, and created a stable peaceful and developed culture. This civilization has significance for not only historians and archaeologists but for the common man also. It was best known for its spectacular city planning and had surpassed all other contemporary civilizations. The Indus civilization knew the measuring tools of length, mass, and time.
They were the first people to develop a system of uniform weights and measures. Their measurements were very precise. They also were good agriculturalists, and their economy was depending on gardening. The Indus people had a wide variety if domesticated animals like camels, cats, dogs, goats, sheep, and buffalos. In Indus valley civilization, the society was divided into three districts social groups. One group ruled and administered the city. The other group included the people who were associated with trade and businesses activities in the city.
Throughout the ages; societies around the world have been compared and contrasted, this is due to the growing interests of the human mind. Although the Indus River Valley was complex and exceptionally organized due to it’s agricultural opportunities, Mesopotamia serves as a more remarkable society. Known for being the ‘cradle of civilization’, Mesopotamia formed a benchmark as the most ancient ...
The third group was the labors who worked in the city. They also included the farmers who cultivated wheat and barley as their main crops. Animals like buffaloes, sheep, and pigs were bred. Fish, mutton, beef, poultry, and pork consisted the food they ate. Men also seemed to have worn ornaments like fillets, necklaces, finger rings, and armlets. Women were fond of ornaments like earrings, bangles, bracelets, necklaces, girdles and ankles made of shell beads, gold, sliver, and copper. The peaceful life of the Indus valley people bred a sense of complacency.
Hence, when the Aryan invaders poured in from the Northwest, they encountered little or no resistance. City after city fell, and the pathetic remains of the people were either assimilated into the conquerors’ way of life, or fled further south. In fact, the fall of Mohenjo-daro, almost 3,500 years ago, typified this decay. In terms of achievements in town planning and civil administration, this was a great setback, as more than a thousand years were to pass before anything of this magnitude was accomplished in India again.