Realization of sensor network applications requires wireless ad hoc networking techniques. However protocols and algorithms proposed for traditional ad hoc networks are not well suited due to the unique features and application requirements of sensor networks. Because of its unique features, sensor networks are used in wide range of applications in areas like health, military, home and commercial industries in our day to day life (Albers, et al; 2002), (Axelsson, S, 2000).
Data gathering protocols are formulated for configuring the network and collecting information from the desired environment.
In each round of the data gathering protocol, data from the nodes need to be collected and transmitted to Base Station, where from the end user can access the data. Sensor nodes use different data aggregation techniques to achieve energy efficiency. Existing data gathering protocol can be classified into four different categories based on the network structure and protocol operation. As WSN is mostly used for gathering application specific information from the surrounding environment, it is highly essential to protect the sensitive data from unauthorized access.
WSNs are vulnerable to security attacks due to the broadcast nature of radio transmission. Sensor nodes may also be physically captured or destroyed by the enemies. The uses of sensor network in various applications emphasis on secure routing. Various protocols are proposed for routing and data gathering but none of them are designed with security as a goal. The resource limitation of sensor networks poses great challenges for security. As sensor nodes are with very limited computing power, it is difficult to provide security in WSN using public-key cryptography.
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Therefore most of the proposed security solutions for WSN are based on symmetric key cryptography. This paper reviews possible attacks on WSN in general as well as attacks on specific WSN data gathering protocols. Overview of Security Issues Attack and Attacker An attack can be defined as an attempt to gain unauthorized access to service, resource or information, or the attempt to compromise integrity, availability, or confidentiality of a system. Attackers, intruders or the adversaries are the originator of an attack.
The weakness in a system security design, implementation, configuration or limitations that could be exploited by attackers is known as vulnerability or flaw. Any circumstance or event (such as the existence of an attacker and vulnerabilities) with the potential to adversely impact a system through a security breach is called threat and the probability that an attacker will exploit a particular vulnerability, causing harm to a system asset is known as risk. Security Requirements A sensor network is a special type of Ad hoc network. So it shares some common property as computer network.
The security requirements (Axelsson, S. 2000) (Estrin, et al 1999) of a wireless sensor network can be classified as follows: i. Authentication: As WSN communicates sensitive data which helps in many important decisions making. The receiver needs to ensure that the data used in any decision-making process originates from the correct source. Similarly, authentication is necessary during exchange of control information in the network. ii. Integrity: Data in transit can be changed by the adversaries. Data loss or damage can even occur without the presence of a malicious node due to the harsh communication environment.
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Data integrity is to ensure that information is not changed in transit, either due to malicious intent or by accident. iii. Data Confidentiality: Applications like surveillance of information, industrial secrets and key distribution need to rely on confidentiality. The standard approach for keeping confidentiality is through the use of encryption. iv. Data Freshness: Even if confidentiality and data integrity are assured, there is also need to ensure the freshness of each message. Data freshness suggests that the data is recent, and it ensures that no old messages have been replayed.
To ensure that no old messages replayed a time stamp can be added to the packet. v. Availability: Sensor nodes may run out of battery power due to excess computation or communication and become unavailable. It may happen that an attacker may jam communication to make sensor(s) unavailable. The requirement of security not only affects the operation of the network, but also is highly important in maintaining the availability of the network. vi. Self-Organization: A wireless sensor network believes that every sensor node is independent and flexible enough to be self-organizing and self-healing according to different hassle environments.
Due to random deployment of nodes no fixed infrastructure is available for WSN network management. Distributed sensor networks must self-organize to support multi-hop routing. They must also self-organize to conduct key management and building trust relation among sensors. vii. Time Synchronization: Most sensor network applications rely on some form of time synchronization. In order to conserve power, an individual sensor’s radio may be turned off periodically. viii.
Secure Localization: The sensor network often needs location information accurately and automatically. However, an attacker can asily manipulate non-secured location information by reporting false signal strengths and replaying signals, etc. Security Classes Attacks on the computer system or network can be broadly classified (Du, et al; 2006. ) as interruption, interception, modification and fabrication. i. Interruption is an attack on the availability of the network, for example physical capturing of the nodes, message corruption, insertion of malicious code etc. ii. Interception is an attack on confidentiality. The sensor network can be compromised by an adversary to gain unauthorized access to sensor node or data stored within it. ii. Modification is an attack on integrity. Modification means an unauthorized party not only accesses the data but tampers it, for example by modifying the data packets being transmitted or causing a denial of service attack such as flooding the network with bogus data. iv. Fabrication is an attack on authentication. In fabrication, an adversary injects false data and compromises the trustworthiness of the information relayed. Methodology The software engineering standard used for this research work is the Structured System Analysis and Design Methodology (SSADM).
The Wireless Sensor Network for Home-Care System Using ZigBee Mao-Cheng Huang, Jyun-Ciang Huang, Jing-Cyun You, Gwo-Jia Jong Department of Electronic Engineering, National Kaohsiung University of Applied Sciences, Kaohsiung, 807 Taiwan, ROC E-mail:email@example.com, firstname.lastname@example.org Abstract In this paper, we presented the wireless sensor networks (WSN) to observe the human physiological ...
The SSADM method involves the application of a sequence of analysis, documentation and design tasks concerned with the following: Feasibility Study The following questions were answered to determine if the proposed system is feasible: i. Is the project technically possible? ii. Can the business afford to carry out the project? iii. Will the new system be compatible with existing practices? iv. Is the impact of the new system socially acceptable? Investigation of the Current Environment The current system is entirely composed of people and paper and mobile telecommunication.
Through a combination of interviewing employees, circulating questionnaires, observations and existing documentation, the analyst comes to full understanding of the system as it is at the start of the project. This served many purposes: i. the researcher became acquainted with the terminology of the business, what users do and how they do it ii. the old system provided the core requirements for the new system iii. faults, errors and areas of inefficiency were highlighted and their correction added to the requirements iv. the data model was constructed v. he users became involved and learned the techniques and models of the analyst vi. the boundaries of the system were defined business system Options Having investigated the current system, the overall design of the new system was decided. Using the outputs of the previous stage, the researcher developed a set of business system options. These are different ways in which the new system could be produced varying from doing nothing to throwing out the old system entirely and building an entirely new one. The analyst held a brainstorming session to generate as many ideas as possible.
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The ideas were then collected to form a set of two or three different options which are presented to the user. The options considered the following: i. The degree of automation ii. The boundary between the system and the users iii. The distribution of the system, for example, is it centralized to one office or spread out across several? iv. Cost/benefit v. Impact of the new system The output of this stage was the single selected business option together with all the outputs of the feasibility stage. Requirements Specification
The researcher developed a full logical specification of what the new system must do. He ensured that the specification was free from error, ambiguity and inconsistency. To produce the logical specification, the analyst built the required logical models for both the data-flow diagrams (DFDs) and the entity relationship diagrams (ERDs).
These were then used to produce function definitions of every function which the users will require of the system, entity life-histories (ELHs) and effect correspondence diagrams. Technical System Options This stage is the first towards a physical implementation of the new system.