Ireland is an island country lying to the west of Great Britian. It is separated from Great Britain by St. George’s Channel, the Irish Sea and the Northern Channel. At its greatest length, from northeast to southwest, it measures three hundred and two miles.
The first human settlements on the island on the northeastern edge of Europe were made relatively late in European prehistory, about six thousand B. C. It remained relatively uninhabited and un invaded. The only knowledge of this Ireland is through references in Greek and Roman literature and pagan legends that survived into the Christian period. Sometime between six hundred and one hundred fifty B.
C. Celtic peoples from western Europe, Known as Gaels, invaded and subdued the inhabitants. The basic units of the Gaelic society were the tua tha, which were petty kingdoms. They remained independent of each other but shared the same common language, Gaelic. There were also a class of men called bretons, “who were learned in customary laws and helped to preserve throughout Ireland a uniform yet archaic social system.” (Grolier) One reason for the unique nature of their society was that the Romans, who had transformed the Celtic societies of Britain and other societies with their armies, roads, administrative system and town structures, never tried to conquer Ireland.
A result of Ireland’s isolation from Romanized Europe was the development of a distinctive Celtic type of Christianity. While Saint Patrick introduced Latin Christianity into the country in the fifth century, the system of bishops with territorial dioceses which was modeled on the Roman’s administrative system, it could not find security in Ireland at the time. (Grolier) Though the independent tua th remained the basic unit of Gaelic secular society, the sovereign monastery became the basic unit of Celtic Christianity. During the sixth and seventh centuries Irish monasteries were great centers of learning.
My strong belief is that in todays society a great emphasis is put on finding ones own life path, by realizing own strength and weakness. I believe it is what makes the difference between success and failure. Every human being is unique and posses their own characteristics. But there are some that think most people are basically the same. I dont agree with that assessment. I do feel that every one ...
Such missionaries as Saint Columba and Saint Columb an were sent out to the rest of Europe. While the rest of Europe was in the Dark Ages, this was Ireland’s golden age. (Grolier) In the late Eighth century, Vikings from Scandinavia began to raid Ireland. The other parts of Europe about this time were responding to the pressures of the invasions by developing the system of feudalism. However, the Gaelic society did not lend itself to such developments because it lacked the heritage of Roman law that provided the framework for the feudal system. (Grolier) The complex and detailed kinship arrangements in which both property-holding and succession to leadership roles were regulated by breton laws.
This impaired the exchange of land for military service, a basic bargain underlying feudal systems. Eventually, the Gaelic society managed to organize resistance. In 1014, Irish forces led by King Brian Boru decisively defeated the Vikings at the Battle of Clontarf. King Brian was giving the title ” high king of Ireland .” (Grolier) During Brian’s tenure (1002-14) his power throughout much of the island was insignificant.
Without the infrastructure of feudalism he was unable to make the transition from symbolic kingship to effective monarch, which was beginning in other parts of Europe. (Grolier) Though the Vikings were gone, they left their mark upon the island by founding Ireland’s first cities, including Dublin, Limerick and Waterford. The unity experienced under Brian had long disappeared by the time Ireland faced her next challenge. It came from, the highly effective feudal monarchy founded by William the Conqueror after his invasion of that country in 1066 from Normandy (Grolier), England.
Anti-Irish sentiment (also known as Hibernophobia, from Hibernia, the Latin name for Ireland) is traditionally rooted in the medieval period. The first British involvement in Ireland began in 1169, when Anglo-Norman troops arrived at Bannow Bay in County Wexford. During the next half millenium, successive English rulers attempted to colonize the island, pitching battles to increase their holdings ...
In 1171, Henry II, a descendant of William, took advantage of a letter from Pope Adrian IV. It authorized Henry to make himself overlord of Ireland in order to bring the Irish Church more “in line with Roman standards.” (Grolier) Many Anglo-Norman barons along with their retainers had already seized large parts of Ireland when Henry himself went to the island accompanied by an army to receive formal submission of those barons and most Irish Kings. In those areas where the Anglo-Norman barons settled and scattered the native Gaelic aristocracy, a feudal system was established similar to their native English and Norman lands. However, it was not an effective centralized monarchy like the Norman feudalism favored in England.
(Grolier) The English government was usually distracted and did issue much authority to the colony. Ireland was mainly divided into three concentric regions in this time: 1. Dublin and its immediate area, it was the only area where the English exercised any authority; 2. a broad area of territories beyond Dublin which where semi- independent fiefs of the great Anglo-Norman lords; 3. territories on the western coast of Ireland that retained Gaelic customs and remained completely outside of the English rule.
(Grolier) The English colony in Ireland reached its peak in the early fourteenth century. The Gaelic society was enjoying a considerable resurgence. Not only by winning back territories from the colonists but through the change of the Anglo-Normans into an ” Anglo-Irish ” aristocracy. As Anglo-Normans intermarried with the natives and adopted the Gaelic language and customs, they progressively became to be ” more Irish than the Irish .” (Grolier – O’Brien, 34) The Anglo-Norman conquest hurried reforms that brought the Irish church more in line with Roman standards.
English legal practices and civil administration were introduced. Additionally, an Irish parliament, modeled on the English one, was created in the late thirteenth century. (Grolier) By the end of the Middle Ages it became clear that the Anglo- Norman conquest was a failure. In the sixteenth century the English monarchs, Henry VIII, Mary I and Elizabeth I, made concerted efforts to reconquer Ireland by use of military and by the establishment or plantation of colonies of English settlers upon the island. (O’Brien, 36) However, Henry’s ties between the Church of England and the papacy complicated the attempts of reconquest. In Ireland, unlike England, there was practically no inherent sympathy with the Protestant reformers among either the Gaelic-Irish or the Anglo-Irish.
Examine the ways in which language and identity are treated in 'Translations' 'Translations' is set in 1833, in County Donegal, which was soon after the time when Britain had claimed Ireland as part of its empire. The British and the Irish therefore had differing languages, so the British decided to go through the process of naming or renaming Ireland's geographical features. In 'Translations' ...
Consequently, the trans-formation of the Church of Ireland into a Protestant church was rejected overwhelming by the majority of the population. (Grolier) 1. De Vere White, Terence. Ireland. New York: Walker and Company. 1968.
2. ” Ireland .” Collier’s Encyclopedia. volume 11, pages 131-144 1959 ed. 3. ” Ireland .” Encyclopedia Britannica. volume 12, pages 592-620 1951 ed.
4. ” Ireland, history of. medieval Ireland.” Grolier Multimedia Encyclopedia. Grolier Electronic Publishing, Inc. 1995 ed. 5.
O’Brien, Elinor. The land and people of Ireland. Philadelphia & New York: JB Lippincott Co. 1953.