Jean Jacques Rousseau, John Locke and Adam Smith Jean Jacques Rousseau had a disdainful attitude towards contemporary society; as such, that prevents its members from pursuing happiness. Russo idealized past. According to philosopher, the pre-historical man was free, in the true sense of this word, as he was not bounded by various social obligations. At the same time, Russo was well aware of the fact that cultural and scientific progress, which defines the essence of Western civilization, cannot be reversed back, because it has an objective nature. Thus, Russo came to conclusion that, in order for the society to allow its members to enjoy the maximum of freedom, it needs to utilize the theory of social contract, as such that is based on citizens willingness to surrender some of their rights, in exchange for various benefits, associated with social stability. John Locke, on the other hand, regarded the accumulation of property, associated with cultural progress, as the natural state of affairs. He viewed inequality among citizens as such that that corresponds to the continuous advancement of humankind, because it opposes the energetic entropy.
According to Locke, the role of the government is to prevent material inequality among citizens from taking grotesque forms. The members of society cannot act as participants of social contract on individual basis, because their selfishness will prevent them from putting the interests of society above their personal agenda. Adam Smith, viewed peoples selfishness as such that defines progress in its essence. According to philosopher, there can be no effective social mechanisms that would motivate people to act in socially appropriate manner. He suggested that, for as long as citizens are being sympathetic towards each other, it is possible for them to pursue their personal interests, without undermining societys integrity. Smith was convinced that the function of the state is to help citizens accumulating the material goods, because people who own property are the least likely to have anti-social attitudes.
... . This showed progress towards a society that would be more free and accepting. However, all of these social reforms also had ... Russia was progressing, many political groups formed. There was the Liberal Party, The People’s Will 1879, the Social Democratic Labour ... factories being built, many job opportunities opened up for people and so unemployment rates also dropped down significantly. Circa ...
Such point of view is not quite as naive as it appears now, when the validity of classical social doctrines is being diminished by the advent of multiculturalism..