*Many psychologists may believe that each perspective has valid explanations depending on the specific situation, and this point of view is called eclectic. This term refers to the claim that no one perspective has all the answers to the variety of human thought and behavior. Psychologists tend to use various perspectives in their work depending on which point of view fits best with the explanation.
Approach & Its Influential Period Principle Contributors Subject Matter Basic Premise
Humanistic (1950s-Present) Carl Rogers-Person-centered therapy and unconditional positive regard Abraham Maslow-Hierarchy of Needs and Self-Actualization Unique aspects of human experience Belief that we choose most of our behaviors and these choices are guided by physiological, emotional or spiritual needs. Humans are free, rational beings with the potential for personal growth, and they are fundamentally different from animals.
Psychoanalytic/Psychodynamic (1900-Present) Sigmund Freud-Personality and States of Consciousness Carl Jung-the most important and lifelong task imposed upon any person is fulfillment through the process of individuation, achievement of harmony of conscious and unconscious, which makes a person one and whole Alfred Adler-“Individual Psychology,” a term which is sometimes misunderstood. It refers to the indivisibility of the personality in its psychological structure. Unconscious determinants of behavior
... life through the meaning of values. The Humanistic-Existential perspective graciously affected therapy in modern day by providing ... its own behavior. Second, the Uniqueness of the Individual is taken into consideration. This concept suggests every person percieves the ... existentialists also think psychology should be converted into a human science, different from psychological theories with more focus ...
Belief that the unconscious mind—a part of our mind that we do not have conscious control over or access to—controls much of our thought and action. Unconscious motives and experiences in early childhood govern personality and mental disorders.
Biopsychology/Neuroscience (1950s-Present) James Olds-the “reward” system in the brain Roger Sperry-showed that if the two hemispheres of the brain are separated by severing the corpus callosum (the large band of fibers that connects them), the transfer of information between the hemispheres ceases, and the coexistence in the same individual of two functionally different brains can be demonstrated. George Miller-The Magical Number Seven, Plus or Minus Two: Some Limits on our Capacity for Processing Information Physiological bases of behavior in humans and animals
An organism’s functioning can be explained in terms of the bodily structures and biochemical processes that underlie behavior. How the body and brain enable emotions, memories, and sensory experiences
Evolutionary/Darwinian (Also called sociobiologists) (1980s-Present) David Buss-His primary interests include the evolutionary psychology of human mating strategies; conflict between the sexes; prestige, status, and social reputation; the emotion of jealousy; homicide; anti-homicide defenses; and stalking. Charles Darwin-the Origin of Species in 1850.
Evolutionary bases of behavior in humans and animals. Examines human thought and behavior in terms of natural selection. Behavior patterns have evolved to solve adaptive problems; natural selection favors behaviors that enhance reproductive success.
Behavioral (1913-Present) John B. Watson-Father of Behaviorism & Baby Albert Experiment Ivan Pavlov-Classical Conditioning with dogs and salivation B.F. Skinner-Operant Conditioning and invented the Skinner Box Effects of environment on the overt behavior of human and animals. Explain human thought and behavior in terms of conditioning and look strictly at observable behaviors and what reaction organisms get in response to specific behaviors. Belief that only observable events (stimulus response relationships) can be studied scientifically.
"The Nature and Function of Culture" I would like to start off with the definition of Culture, which is an organized system of learned behavior and thought patterns. Always make manifest by a group making that group distinctive from other groups. It is non-instinctive but rests on a biological base of: binocular, stereoscopic, color, vision/ habitual, upright bipedal locomotion/ generalized ...
Cognitive (1950s-Present) Jean Piaget-Stage Theory of Cognitive Development Noam Chomsky-Theorized the critical-period for language acquisition Herbert Simon-one of the founding fathers of modern research in artificial intelligence Ulric Neisser-focused on pattern recognition, visual search, brief information processing, and memory. Thoughts; mental process
Examine human thought and behavior in terms of how we interpret, process, and remember environmental events. The rules that we use to view the world are important to understanding why we think and behave the way we do. Overall, human behavior cannot be fully understood without examining how people acquire, store, and process information.
Sociocultural (Social-Cultural) (???-Present) Vygotsky-argues that a child’s development cannot be understood by a study of the individual. We must also examine the external social world in which that individual life has developed. Effects of social and cultural issues on behavior
Looks at how our thoughts and behaviors vary from people living in other cultures. Emphasizes the influence culture has on the way we think and act.