The Malaysian Economy: Booming The Economy: Following a period of severe and prolonged recession, the Malaysian economy has returned to growth aided by a relaxation of monetary and fiscal policies and by increased export demand, particularly in the electronics sector. While the world economic slowdown was more severe than expected and the unprecedented September 11 events in the United States had widespread implications for all economies, Malaysia was able to steer away from a major economic contraction and GDP growth for the year remained in positive territory. However, given the openness of its economy with trade accounting for about 200 percent of GDP, Malaysia was not spared from the negative effects of the United States economic slowdown. These effects came in the form of declining manufacturing production and negative export growth, particularly of electronics. Nevertheless, the government’s initiation of strong monetary and fiscal policies to stimulate economic growth through accelerating domestic economic activities and reducing the over-dependence on exports helped the nation to sustain a positive real GDP growth. Since 1998 the Government has relaxed the equity guidelines for investment in the manufacturing sector.
Foreigners can now own 100% equity regardless of the level of exports and several incentives have also been introduced recently to promote the manufacturing-related services sector. Foreign Direct Investment has been the key to the country’s remarkable success in recent years. Hundreds of international companies have so far established themselves in the country, attracted by the favorable investment environment has made Malaysia one of the world’s top locations for offshore manufacturing operations. Manufacturing is now the largest export sector of the economy (contributing around 34% of GDP and employing nearly 28% of the labor force in 2000).
The Review on Imposing consumption tax on Saudi consumers and its contribution in promoting economic growth
Introduction Saudi economy mostly relies on oil industry and its government has much control over natural resources and main economic activities in the land. Ultimately, the economy of Saudi is centrally planned and therefore has free market economy. As it can be affirmed, oil industry contributes to approximately 45% of the total budget revenue hence making it imperative to the growth of the ...
The electronics sector (radios and television) is the main export earner followed by processed foods, rubber, chemicals, timber, petroleum-refining and automobile manufacturing.
In 2001, the impact of the slowdown in economic activity was also felt by the labor market, particularly in terms of unemployed workers in the manufacturing sector. However, given the flexibility accorded by the labor market, alternative measures that were adopted by employers (such as pay cuts and temporary layoffs) helped contain the number of workers unemployed. The Malaysian exchange rate remained pegged to the US dollar at the rate of RM 3. 80 per US dollar in 2001 (an arrangement that has been effective since 2 September 1998).
The ‘Ringgit’ appreciated against all major currencies, including regional currencies in tandem with the strong U. S dollar.
The joint exchange rate regime continues to be supported by the strong fundamentals of the economy as reflected by the strong current account surplus and the low rate of inflation. Given that the outlook for the global economy has improved, supported particularly by positive developments in United States and the expected pick-up in world trade in tandem with a gradual upturn in the electronics sector, the Malaysian economy is well placed to strengthen further in the near future. However, some downside risks need to be addressed as the strength of global recovery is still uncertain and external demand may not be as strong as it was during the 1999-2000 period. The current economic upturn is taking place amidst global excess capacity, particularly in the information and communication technology sector.
There are numerous reasons for introducing a common currency. For most EU countries today, the majority of international trade is with other EU members. The euro-zone will become an area of monetary stability in Europe. The new currency removes exchange rate risks from the internal market, cuts the costs of transactions and encourages firms to trade across national borders. It also forces EU ...
Malaysia, therefore, needs to ensure that the economic recovery gathers momentum and that the downside risks are minimized.