Ming dynasty and Manchu Ming dynasty is a great period in the history China. It left its own trace and will be remembered by the next generations. As every dynasty it had its own advantages and drawbacks. But all these events did happen and nobody can change the past. People have to remember the history of the world. At first it is necessary to mention the beginning of the Ming dynasty and the events which lead to its foundation.
After the power of the Mongol Emperors was ended China was attacked by other enemies who wanted to conquer it. And after such destructive assaults Chine was under the influence of anarchy. This lasted several years. (Danto 13) It was Chu Yuan-chang who founded the Ming dynasty. With time he destroyed his competitors and became the only pretender to the thrown. He showed his real power and achieved his goal. Little by little Chu with his army conquered practically all the territory of China.
It was said that the Ming armies had a real superiority over the Mongols and, of course, over other nomads. But Chu didnt want to settle direct rules and norms in Central Asia or in Turkestan. He understood the importance of these countries and their trade routes, so he never tried to conquer them. (Mcdermott 2) History informed that Chu didnt settle the foreign policy of the previous emperors, but he established his own dynasty as a new model. The government and even the provinces were re-arranged according the previous model of Tang. There were fifteen provinces in the Ming dynasty compared with eighteen established by the Manchus.
The first prehistoric dynasty is said to be Xia, from about the twenty-first to the sixteenth century B.C. Xia-dynasty was founded by the Si-clan, who were descendants of the clan’s foundation father, Yu. Because of the lack of written sources, historians have still not gained a correct idea of how the people lived at that time. According to the later tradition, Yu spent thirteen years to ...
The modern conquered provinces also formed a part of China. The names of areas and provinces were determined by the Ming government. Chu called them after the classical names. It is a matter of fact that before becoming an emperor Chu was just a bandit. When he was choosing the name for his dynasty he broke the traditional pattern of denomination. He called his dynasty Ming or the brilliant dynasty. (Danto 13) Being a new emperor he made several considerable innovations including reign title use and official style. Chu cancelled all old traditions and customs. Chu wanted to return to ancient traditions dated to the dynasties of Chou Kings and Chin Shih who had a habit to date and to name reigns under ones style.
This change has its advantages, of course. It was much easier to know how many years the emperor occupied the thrown without calculation. At first Nanking became the capital of the Ming dynasty. There was a great palace rebuilt by the emperor. This palace is considered to be one of the most beautiful and its wall is thought to be the longest in the whole world. When Chu chose Nanking as the capital he wanted to place government seats in the part of China.
His choice was rather clever and his dynasty was safer established than that of his predecessors. (Tu Wei-Ming 18) Since the collapse of the previous dynasty the north has lost importance in commercial and cultural fields, because many inhabitants went away to the south. The capital of the Ming dynasty, Nanking, had a favorable and ideal location for the government, because it had an access for merchanting and trading. It was also the richest and populous part of the Ming Empire and was safe from assaults of northern frontiers. These were the main reasons why Nanking was chosen as a capital. But with time the capital moved to Peking. It was the decision of the third Ming Emperor Yung Lo.
He ignored the advantages of the Nanking and thought he was the cleverest. As a result of such change the dynasty greatly suffered, because it became weak and couldnt defend itself from the attacks of enemies. And there were domestic problems. The conflict between the north and the south sharpened. Many officials couldnt constrain their animosity. All these events led not only to a conflict but even to a rivalry. The reasons of it are obvious.
The Song Dynasty The Song dynasty lasted over 300 years, from 960 to 1279. Their history is divided into two periods of Northern and Southern Song. The Song period was one of China's most peaceful and prosperous era. However the Song government was corrupt and weak. The Song Dynasty, or Sung Dynasty was a period in which the Chinese government was very weak. In the beginning General Chao K'u ang- ...
The difference between the two parts was evident and it became more significant with years. The south was always under the power of Sung, they were civilized and fortified compared with the north. And now the power of Ming dynasty concentrated in the north. All these factors lead to such conflict and rivalry. Thats why the situation changed completely. Earlier after the Mongol conquest the south became wealthy and rich and the north was poor and ruined. (Seligman 18) In the Ming dynasty this considerable difference of two parts was really obvious.
And it is a common knowledge that the south pretenders got the majority of places. They were more educated and civilized. Being greatly displeased by these factors the emperors gave one-third of the places to the north representatives. Thats why the historian can say that Peking wasnt a safe capital, though earlier it was his headquarters. They think it is necessary to outline the following disadvantages of Peking as a capital. It is known that Peking was situated in a sandy and plain region without good waterways. So it had no links with wealthy provinces.
And it was open for nomads attacks and assaults. (Tong 24) The strength of the government decreased and nothing could help to restore it. The capital was always in danger of being attacked by nomad enemies. It was a real chance for them to conquer the capital which was like a heart of China. And the Emperor had to gather all the armies and to collect all the possible money to protect the exposed capital from attack. Of course, it led to destructive consequences. People were displeased.
The location of the capital was a weak point for the dynasty. Chu ruled the empire for almost thirty years. Historians called this period a period of stability at home and successful conquest abroad. These facts had to result in long peace. But the situation changed after his death. The next Emperor was a sixteen-year old boy, the grandson of Chu, Hui Ti. His elder son died.
It was the beginning of a long civil war, because his uncle also wanted to become Emperor. The results were really awful: complete destruction and weakness of the empire. At the end Nenking fell into the rebels hands. (Danto 13) The main aspect of Ming dynasty was trade. The signed a new contract with the western world. It was the contract which led to great and profound changes in the civilization of China.
Gender plays a very important role in the definition of history. Male historians are often presented as scientific thinkers. But the truth is that they merely perpetuate religious, ethnocentric or class-based versions of the past under the guise of neutrality. Female historians, on the other hand, are usually dismissed as propagators of amateur or irrelevant historical accounts. This observation ...
The beginning of the relations between China and Europe are connected with the visit of Perestrello. His ship was the first to make a direct sale to China. By this visit was combined with misunderstanding and mutual violence. Arab and Persian merchants always visited Chine. In the Ming dynasty it was freely open for foreign traders and merchants. They had no problems at all with the foreigners.
But the main point was that the trade missions were concentrated not in the provinces and ports but particularly in the capital of China. During the Ming dynasty the traders were not permitted to visit other parts of the empire. This contrast had an explanation, of course, but these events were so obscure that it was rather difficult for historians to find out the very details of it and to decide whether the contrast was fair. But it is evident that Europeans behaved rudely and barbarously. And such prohibition of trade was the result of such violent actions. (13) It is necessary to mention some facts about the Ming Emperor Yongle.
Yongle is considered to be a pleasurable but is complicated by irrefutable association with less happy aspects of Ming dynasty. It involved political intrigues and mass murder. Yongle was not a fair Emperor. The history says that he was e real tyrant and despot, he was cruel and violent. He could do everything to gain his aim. He didnt think over when killing people. He was a real mass murder.
And it is a matter of fact that people were greatly frightened by his actions and behavior. Nobody dared to conflict with him, because everyone knew he would be killed immediately. It was really difficult and hard times for nation. The reign of Yongle was called Perpetual Happiness. But it cant be considered to be right name. Many moralistic historians told it was just a misnomer.
But it was not a joke or irony. This title was chosen deliberately. This title tried to shed light on the more humane side of the Emperor Yongle. Like every person Yongle had virtues and drawbacks, which he had fully demonstrated during his being an emperor. In order to show all side, positive and negative, the author chose such ironic title. He wanted to make a complete portrait of the Emperor.
The third floor of the Los Angeles County Museum of Art houses a permanent collection on Ancient Egyptian art. One of the pieces there is a 13″ high figurine of the goddess Wadjet, sculpted from bronze in during the 26th Dynasty, est. 664-525 BCE. The figurine is in the round, with only the goddess’s feet attached the rectangular base she stands on. The hieroglyphs on the base identify ...
(13) Some historians even say that Emperor Yongle was a personification of great contradictions and disputes. He wanted to achieve and to gain too much. He didnt stop before anything. I think he was a strong, serious but very cruel person. And such qualities were rather common for all Emperors but in different proportions. Every person has a dark side.
Yongle wasnt exception. He guided the construction ….