Missouri Compromise, 1820–21, measures passed by the U.S. Congress to end the first of a series of crises concerning the extension of slavery.
By 1818, Missouri Territory had gained sufficient population to warrant its admission into the Union as a state. Its settlers came largely from the South, and it was expected that Missouri would be a slave state. To a statehood bill brought before the House of Representatives, James Tallmadge of New York proposed an amendment that would forbid importation of slaves and would bring about the ultimate emancipation of all slaves born in Missouri. This amendment passed the House (Feb., 1819), but not the Senate. The bitterness of the debates sharply emphasized the sectional division of the United States.
In Jan., 1820, a bill to admit Maine as a state passed the House. The admission of Alabama as a slave state in 1819 had brought the slave states and free states to equal representation in the Senate, and it was seen that by pairing Maine (certain to be a free state) and Missouri, this equality would be maintained. The two bills were joined as one in the Senate, with the clause forbidding slavery in Missouri replaced by a measure prohibiting slavery in the remainder of the Louisiana Purchase north of 36°30’N lat. (the southern boundary of Missouri).
The House rejected this compromise bill, but after a conference committee of members of both houses was appointed, the bills were treated separately, and in Mar., 1820, Maine was made a state and Missouri was authorized to adopt a constitution having no restrictions on slavery.
The Essay on Originating House Bill Legislation Reading
Parliament, as the sovereign lawmaking body is one source of law. It makes legislation via passing bills to make laws that abide by social cohesion and maintain social progress, such as sanctions imposed for murder under the Criminal Law Consolidation Act SA. A political party affiliates it's self with specific views and moral and promises to initiate or support certain legislation's to its ...
A provision in the Missouri constitution barring the immigration of free blacks to the state was objectionable to many Northern Congressmen, and necessitated another congressional compromise. Not until the Missouri legislature pledged that nothing in its constitution would be interpreted to abridge the rights of citizens of the United States was the charter approved and Missouri admitted to the Union (Aug., 1821).
Henry Clay, as speaker of the House, did much to secure passage of the compromise—so much, in fact, that he is generally regarded as its author, even though Senator Jesse B. Thomas of Illinois was far more responsible for the first bill. The 36°30′ proviso held until 1854, when the Kansas-Nebraska Act repealed the Missouri Compromise.
The Election of 1824 clearly showed that the “era of good feelings” had come to an end. All the candidates were Democratic-Republicans, but personal and sectional interests outweighed political orthodoxy. The candidates included:
John Quincy Adams, son of a Federalist president, represented the interests of the Northeast (high protective tariff) and was the leading contender
Henry Clay of Kentucky shared political views with Adams, but they held one another in contempt — the rigid New Englander versus the hard-drinking Westerner
Andrew Jackson, a Senator from Tennessee and military hero, drew Western support from Clay despite the fact that his political views were not well-known
William H. Crawford of Georgia was born in Virginia and hoped to continue the “Virginia Dynasty;” he held to the old-line Republican view of limiting the role of the central government, but was still the congressional power brokers’ favorite
John C. Calhoun of South Carolina harbored presidential aspirations, but backed out in the hope of securing the vice presidency.
When results were tallied it was evident that Clay had siphoned-off enough votes from Adams to deny him an electoral majority. Adams finished with 84 votes, Jackson 99, Crawford 41 and Clay 37.
The Essay on Election Of 1824 Clay Adams Jackson
... of the election at first, but when Adams named Clay his secretary of state, Jackson and his supporters cried, " corrupt bargain." ... Then in 1817, James Monroe appointed Adams his secretary of state. 5 Adams supported protective tariffs and federal programs that were ... central government views and Adams agreed to Clay's deal. When the House voted, Adams got 13 votes, Jackson had 7, and Crawford ...
The Twelfth Amendment (adopted in 1804 following the disputed Election of 1800) provided that elections in which no candidate received a majority should be decided by the House of Representatives from among the top three candidates. Clay was out of contention and Crawford was an unlikely prospect because of a serious illness.
Jackson clearly expected to win, figuring that the House would act to confirm his strong showing. However, Clay, as Speaker of the House, used his influence to sway the vote to Adams. Although they were not close, Clay knew that he and Adams shared a common political philosophy; Clay also knew that Jackson was an avowed opponent of the Bank of the United States, a vital component of the American System. Clay also was not interested in doing anything to further the career of the hero of New Orleans, his main rival in the West.
Adams prevailed on the first ballot in the House of Representatives and became the nation’s sixth president. His subsequent appointment of Henry Clay as Secretary of State led to angry charges of a “corrupt bargain.”
The Tariff of 1832, despite pleas from Southern representatives, failed to moderate the protective barriers erected in earlier legislation. South Carolina called a state convention that nullified the tariffs of 1828 and 1832 within their borders and threatened to secede if the federal government attempted to collect those tariff duties. Robert Hayne (of Webster-Hayne Debate fame) had resigned from the Senate to run for governor of South Carolina; John C. Calhoun resigned the vice presidency and took Hayne’s seat in the Senate. These two men spearheaded the nullification drive. A real possibility of secession and war existed.
Jackson immediately offered his thought that nullification was tantamount to treason and quickly dispatched ships to Charleston harbor and began strengthening federal fortifications there. Congress supported the president and passed a Force Bill in early 1833 which authorized Jackson to use soldiers to enforce the tariff measures.
Meanwhile Henry Clay again took up his role as the Great Compromiser. On the same day the Force Bill passed, he secured passage of the Tariff of 1833. This latter measure provided for the gradual reduction of the tariff over 10 years down to the level which had existed in 1816. This compromise was acceptable to Calhoun who had not been successful with finding any other state to support him on nullification. Jackson signed both measures.
The Essay on Henry Clay Adams Jackson Political
Kelley Briggs John Benton History 201 December 2, 2003 Henry Clay and the "Corrupt Bargain" Henry Clay was an American statesman for nearly two-thirds of his entire life. His remarkable skills as a political negotiator earned him the title of the Great Compromiser. Clay's most popular compromises involved reconciling the hostile arguments over slave-ownership between the Northern and Southern ...
South Carolina repealed its nullification measure, but then spitefully nullified the Force Bill. Jackson wisely ignored that action.