Modern Development of Japan
CHY 4U West and the World
During 18th century, under the influence of imperialism, the European nations came to control much of the world’s geography and its people. Japan, However, not only effectively resisted the imperial powers but transformed its feudal society into a modern, western-style nation under the Meiji government. Japan accomplished serve changes to reform its nation. Politics, economy and military are the three major keys that response for the success of became a modern country.
Japanese government reformed into a western-style political group. Before the Meiji government, the old bakufu system took control of Japan over 5 centuries. Japan almost totally isolated itself with the world by Tokugawa`s government in 16th century. But in March 1854, the Treaty of Peace and Amity forced the government open two ports to the U.S.A after Admiral Matthew C.Petter took fair in Edo Bay. This significant event made Japan rejoin the world. 13 years after the treaty, Tokugawa government replaced by Meiji government. Japan now has the chance to absorb western culture. In 1873, One of the governor of Meiji government Itagaki Taisuke started a movement aimed at establishing a constitutional monarchy and a legislative assembly. It known as the Freedom and People’s Rights Movement. In 1881, Itagaki helped found the Liberal Party in Tokyo, which favored French political doctrines. This movement determined the Japanese government is moving toward western countries instead of staying in the old bakufu system. Later on, in 1882, Okuma Shigenibu established the Constitutional Progressive Party, which called for a British- style constitutional democracy. At this time, Japanese politics divided into serve small parties lead by western-style leaders. To further strengthen the authority of the parties, Itagaki suggests the emperor reform the states. Finally, the emperor signed the Imperial Diet in 1889. In the agreement, he agreed to share his authority and giving rights and liberties to his subjects. Party participation was recognized as part of the political process. After the Diet, Meiji government successfully transfer to a western-style based government with part of traditional Japanese monarchy.
The Rise of Japanese Militarism Japan's political journey from its quasi-democratic government in the 1920's to its radical nationalism of the mid 1930's, the collapse of democratic institutions, and the eventual military state was not an overnight transformation. There was no coup d'etat, no march on Rome, no storming of the Bastille. Instead, it was a political journey that allowed a ...
Japan modernized its economy with a extremely high speed. Under the new Meiji government, Japan played a important rule in the world trade. There are two main reasons for the changes of Japanese economy: the employment of over 3000 foreign experts in a variety of specialist fields such as teaching English, Science, Engineering, the army and navy ect; and the dispatch of many Japanese students overseas to Europe and America. With a new economy policy that based on western-style management. Japan gradually took control of most of Asia’s market for manufactured products, beginning with textile. The economic structure became very mercantilistic, importing raw materials and exporting finished goods. In Meiji period, the ruler embraced the concept of market economy and adopted British and North American forms of free enterprise capitalism. Japan’s economy changes include a unified modern currency based on the Yen, banking, commercial and tax laws, stock exchange, and a communications network. Also Meiji government completely abundant the old bakufu trading system. The government was initially involved in economic modernization, providing a number of “model factories” to facilitate the transition to the modern period. Based on the growing economy, Japan successfully resisted the western imperial powers that will control Asia market.
Government Economy Policies USA has one of the most technologically advanced and largest economies in the world. Its GDP is near 12.373 trillion dollars. US economy is capitalistic and free-market oriented where the vast majority of microeconomic decisions are made by In this capitalistic, free market-oriented mixed economy, corporations and other corporations and other private firms. Business ...
Japan resisted the imperial powers also because Japan had a strong, modernized military. At the beginning of the Edo period, Tokugawa government built the first western-style warships. In 1885, a navel training school with Dutch instructors was set up at Nagasaki and the first western-style military school was established at Edo. But the military itself still based on the old daimyo system that the higher rank were hold by sumurai. After Matsuhito became the emperor, he issued the Law of Sword, samurai lost almost all of their power and rights. The government stated to reform the military based on western-style leadership. In 1868, Japanese government began taking modernization seriously. At this year, Meiji government established the Tokyo Arsenal. This arsenal was responsible for the development and manufacture of small arms and associated ammunition. Same year, Masujiro Omura established Japan’s first ever military academy in Kyoto. Two years later, Japan expanded its military production base by opening another arsenal in Osaka which responsible for the production of machine guns and ammunition. Later on, the Conscription Law in January 1873 required every able bodies male Japanese citizen, regardless of class, to serve a mandatory term of three years with the first reserves and two additional years with the second reserves. For the structure, new Japanese army contributed greatly to the training of Japanese officers. Many were employed at the military academy in Kyoto, and many more still were feverishly translating French field manuals for use in the Japanese ranks. After the new army defeat the rebellion of the Takamori Saigo in Kyushu. The military victory validated the current course of the modernization of the Japanese army and gave the strength to compete with western nations for Japan.
Japan effectively resisted the western imperial powers and successfully transfer its old feudal government based on its political changing, the fast growing economy and the modernize military. Unlike other Asia countries, Japan plays a negative rule in the following wars. But the processes that Japan took in order to transfer to modern countries are still help third world countries to build their ways to become better.
... military reform. In 1873, the government declared universal conscription, and raised the first national army from the former samurai. The Japanese ... such as Mitsubishi, and these helped Japan's economy to grow. Over the next 30 years, Japan's economy became as modern as any ... reforms in the emperor's name. The Meiji Constitution was established in 1889 and stated "Japan shall be reigned over and ...
1.Textbook: West and the World
2. Edo period: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Edo_period
3. Meiji Military: http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/world/japan/military-meiji.htm
4. Japan March Toward Militarism: http://wgordon.web.wesleyan.edu/papers/jhist2.htm
5. Osaka Army Arsenal:
6. Emperor Meiji: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Emperor_Meiji