Nouns, Adjectives, Pronouns, Verbs
morphology is the identification, analysis and description of the structure of a given language’s morphemes and other linguistic units, such as words, affixes, parts of speech, intonation/stress, or implied context. (words in a lexicon are the subject matter of lexicology).
Morphological typology represents a method for classifying languages according to the ways by which morphemes are used in a language —from the analytic that use only isolated morphemes, through the agglutinative (“stuck-together”) and fusional languages that use bound morphemes (affixes), up to the polysynthetic, which compress lots of separate morphemes into single words.
some of the categories are described below:
Nouns inflect for case (primary and secondary), dependant cross-referencing and definiteness. There is no grammatical number, but a collective derivation may be employed in case of need. There are two grammatical genders: masculine and feminine. Nouns whose stem ends in a consonant are masculine; nouns whose stem ends in a vowel are feminine.
There are three layers of declension: primary case, dependant cross-referencing and secondary case. Four primary cases are recognized: absolutive, genitive, dative and locative. They are marked by the following agglutinative suffixes:
| Masculine | Feminine |
... grammars (rules) by which they are manipulated. The word language is also used to refer to the whole phenomenon of ... Amsterdam. Uleman, J. (1987). Consciousness and control: The case of spontaneous trait inferences. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 13 ... Caramazza, A., & Yates, J.(1976).Factors influencing assignment of noun antecedents. Cognition, 3, 227-243. Gibson, J. J. (1979 ...
| Front | Back | Front | Back |
Absolutive | [unmarked] |
Genitive | -e | -o | -we | -yo |
Dative | -i | -u | -wi | -yu |
Locative | -a | -wa |
Suffixes come in two variants, a front one and a back one, which are selected according to vowel harmony. For nouns that only contain the vowel /a/, the back allomorph is employed.
Dependant cross-referencing is marked through a set of enclitic bound pronouns which are common to nouns and verbs. Cross-referencing involves all of the nominal dependants in the genitive case and is mandatory. Secondary case is marked through postpositions. Definiteness is marked by means of regular stress shift.
Verbs inflect for tense, finiteness, subject agreement and definiteness. Infinitive forms are used as nouns and therefore also inflect for case as if they were plain nouns.
There are four tenses: imperative, present, past and future. The imperative is morphologically unmarked and lacks the finite/infinitive distinction. Tense is marked by means of the following agglutinative suffixes:
| Finite | Infinitive |
| Front | Back | Front | Back |
Imperative | [unmarked] |
Present | -ei | -ou | -eide | -oudo |
Past | -wir | -yur | -wirde | -yurdo |
Future | -wei | -you | -weide | -youdo |
Suffixes come in two variants, a front one and a back one, which are selected according to vowel harmony. For verbs that only contain the vowel /a/, the back allomorph is employed. Infinitives are marked by appending -de/do to the tense marker.
Subject cross-referencing is marked through a set of enclitic bound pronouns which are common to nouns and verbs. Cross-referencing is mandatory, and it always refers to the absolutive function (the unique argument of intransitive verbs and the patient argument of transitive verbs).
Definiteness is marked by means of regular stress shift.
Personal pronouns inflect for primary and secondary case, just like nouns, but not for possessor cross-referencing and definiteness. They are:
| Singular | Plural |
1st | cún | cór |
2nd | ín | ér |
3rd | Masculine | tón | tán |
| Feminine | léi | lái |
| Neuter | ví | vái |
... the third major class of words in English, after nouns and verbs. Adjectives are words expressing properties of objects (e. g. large ... 'of ' to specify the person who has a quality brave good polite thoughtful careless intelligent sensible unkind clever kind silly ... forms (i. e. the comparative and superlative) are the marked members, distinguished by the comparison suffixes or comparison auxiliaries. ...
The declension of adjectives is based upon that of nouns. Adjectives, however, can only be first/second declension or third declension adjectives. First/second declension adjectives decline their feminine forms from the first declension noun endings and their masculine and neuter forms from the second declension noun endings. Third declension adjective endings are based upon those of the third declension noun endings. There are no fourth or fifth declension adjectives.
Both Latin and English change the morphology of the adjective to express degrees of comparison. Here’s an example:
| Positive | Comparative | Superlative |
English: | brave | braver | bravest, very brave |
Latin: | fortis | fortior | fortissimus |
The “positive” is the simple adjective (as it would be found in the dictionary)
vir fortis est, “the man is brave”; no direct comparison is being made between the man and other people who might be brave.
The “comparative” is often used when one thing is being compared directly to another:
vir fortior est quam filius, “the man is braver than his son”; here, the man is being compared directly to his son, so the comparative form of the adjective is used, “fortior”
The “superlative” is often used to compare the noun it modifies with all other of a kind in relation to that adjective
An epilogue is a final chapter at the end of a story that often serves to reveal the fates of the characters. Some epilogues may feature scenes only tangentially related to the subject of the story. They can be used to hint at a sequel or wrap up all the loose ends. They can occur at a significant period of time after the main plot has ended. In some cases, the epilogue has been used to allow the main character a chance to ‘speak freely’. An epilogue can continue in the same narrative style and perspective as the preceding story, although the form of an epilogue can occasionally be drastically different from the overall story. When the author steps in and speaks directly to the reader, that is more properly considered an afterword. It can also be used as a sequel.
... for “we”. It had two different declensions of adjectives, four declensions of nouns, and grammatical distinctions of gender. ... terms (admiral, parliament), and astronomical names (Saturn, Leo). Languages that have contributed words to English include Latin, Greek, ... brought many classical Latin and Greek words into the Language. These borrowings were deliberate and many complained about ...
“A short postscript to any literary work.”
A concluding section that rounds out the design of a literary work .
A speech often in verse addressed to the audience by an actor at the end of a play.
The final scene of a play that comments on or summarizes the main action .
The epilogue is the final section of a novel or story, which provides a comment or conclusion to what has happened. It follows the book’s climax, and ties up any loose knots. The denouement, then, might occur in the epilogue.
Epilogue will help to understand the six questions about oral language:
* “What are the basic units of language?”
* “What’s regular and what isn’t? How do forms relate to each other?”
* “How is the lexicon acquired and structured?
* “Are vernacular dialects different from “bad Language” and, if so, how?”
* “What is academic Language?”
* “Why has the acquisition of Language by non-Native-speaking children not been more universally successful?”
Five other questions relate to written Language:
* “Why is Language spelling so complicated?”
* “Why do some children have more trouble than others in developing early reading skills?”
* “Why do students have trouble with structuring narrative and expository writing?”
* “How should one judge the quality and correctness of a piece of writing?”
* “What makes a sentence or a text easy or difficult to understand?”
Each question is followed by a short description of the knowledge about language that is required in order to be able to answer it.
Epilogue: Implications for Teaching & Reflection
Post-Commentary and Application
Some acquisition-oriented general implications which are to be suggestive and to stimulate thinking for language teaching.
In this Epilogue, there are five implications of Second Language Acquisition research for the development of L2 curricula. They are:
... teaching the four language skills: listening, speaking, reading, writing along with comprehension and thinking (what). Slide 3: The study of second language acquisition ... the status of a hypothesis. Slide 35: The implication of the interlanguage continuum for teachers is that ... from contrastive analysis were based on the claim that language is a habit; language learning involves the establishment ...
Implication 1: the more input, the better (the more meaning-based the class, the better);
Implication 2: the more interaction, the better;
Implication 3: all learner production should be meaning-based or communicative;
Implication 4: focus on form (or grammar instruction) should be meaning-based and tied to input or communication; and
Implication 5: we should watch for what we expect of learners.
These implications can be considered givens for any curriculum that aims to develop acquisition (and communicative abilities as a co-product).
These givens are actually guidelines which are useful for teachers who explore a range of options and to identify materials and practices that not only fit the guidelines but also fit their own teaching styles and contexts of learning.