Nixon Administration Richard Nixon was the thirty seventh president of the United States of America who with the help of various shifts and his persistence in 1968 has won presidential elections though he did it with very small advantage. The first year of presidency has lit up with shine of lunar landing which was made on July, 21, 1969 by astronauts Armstrong and Aldrin on a spacecraft “Apollo” and which has strengthened the undermined confidence of the nation. But an essential problem of the new president was war in Vietnam which monthly cost 500 lives of American soldiers, absorbed the huge sums of money, split the nation and harmed the authority of the USA. The main aim of Nixon’s Doctrine that was generated in July, 1969 about the further military activity the USA in Asia was replacement of American soldiers with Southern Vietnam armies which with the most up-to-date arms would be able to prevent communistic triumph. In June, 1969 the leading out of 550000 American soldiers began. It was completed in March, 1973.
As it was no more necessary to expect for a military victory, the secretary on safety Henry Kissinger has entered secret negotiations with representatives of the Northern Vietnam government in 1970. To force Hanoi to concessions, Nixon has staked on simultaneous military impacts, such as keeping in a secret bombardments of basic bases of Vietnam in Cambodia and the subsequent intrusion of ground armies. Useless expansion of war in the military attitude has led to mass protests in the USA and as a result of which in May, 1970 4 students of Kent State University (Ohio) have been shot by national guardsmen. Before the face of growing military pressure on reliable Southern Vietnam army Nixon did not see, eventually, any other decision how to force Hanoi to sit down to the table of negotiations. In April, 1972 bombardments of Northern Vietnam have begun again and when the temporary compromise in October was broke about resistance of Southern Vietnam government, they have developed to Christmas into the largest air approach of all war. The agreement signed on January, 27, 1973 in Paris with Vietnam hardly was expected “the honorable world”, though many historians confirm success of strategy of Nixon as bombing war has forced Northern Vietnam to concede.
... , but non-communist countries did prosper following the Vietnam War and the effects of American defeat were far less than anticipated. Thirty years ... case, it is ridiculous how American citizens displayed open dishonor and disgrace to both fallen and returning soldiers. These men went through ...
The leading out of the American armies and returning of captured have put a final point under the most long war of America, but presence of 100000 North American soldiers in the south could be considered as a recognition of that falling of Southern Vietnam was only a matter of time. Despite of the American promise to help, Southern Vietnam government which Nixon has categorically forced to accept the agreement felt like devoted to the United States. Later Kissinger asserted that falling of Southern Vietnam in 1974-75 was possible to prevent without a paralysis caused by Watergate, but many it is subject to the big doubt in view of unwillingness of the American public and the Congress to come back to a military variant. (Ambrose S.E. pp. 23-24) Nevertheless Nixon’s foreign policy successes are conclusive. The fact that the former hunter on communists tried to adjust relations with both communistic powers and in 1972 was the first American president, who has visited China and Soviet Union, was, undoubtedly, the major foreign policy turn of the USA since the beginning of “The Cold War” which has confused critics and his many political friends.
Impression that was caused by Henry Kissinger in his memoirs, that he was, actually, the foreign policy architect of administration of Nixon, is obviously exaggerated. Nixon himself constantly emphasized the leading part in acceptance of all important decisions. Thus between the president and his adviser on safety, and later Minister for Foreign Affairs, existed the uttermost consent concerning to bases and the purposes of the American foreign policy. Both counted themselves to be focused on national interests for “real politics” for whom ideological or moral reasons were of secondary importance. Both most of all would like to see the world policy in hands of cautious heads, without importunate intervention of public opinion or the parliamentary control whenever it is possible. In America of the Vietnamese era this concept, despite of all diplomatic successes, did not correspond to spirit of time any more, and encountered resistance more and more. So, the Congress all insisted on the constitutional laws more strongly and in 1973 has issued, contrary to Nixon’s veto, the law which ordered to the president to inform on each application of force within 48 hours and – if the Congress for this time has not declared war – maximum after 60 days to stop any military operations. (Ehrlichman J. p. 52)
... task as the "liquidation" of the American economy. And it feared that expansionary monetary policy would impede the necessary private-sector process ... in their commitment to the gold standard, that the potential foreign exchange reserves of any one country were the world's ... the duration of slack production, or by the product-depth times duration-of these two measures, the Great Depression is an ...
Ambrose S. E.
Nixon: The Triumph of a Politician. New York, 1989. Ehrlichman J. Witness to Power: The Nixon Years. New York, 1982..