Several years ago, I was the marketing Manager for a new line of perfume, which had to be promoted, introduced to the consumer, and allow for succession in the market. By marketing the product the sales would either be high or low depending on the market responses. One way to ensure successfully marketing to the right consumers is through the use of Operant Conditioning. Operant Conditioning, also known as Instrumental learning is defined as a “learning process by which the consequences of an operant response affects the likelihood that the response will occur in the future” (Kozak, pg 22).
Basically, Operant Conditioning is a stimulus response pattern that when reinforced will condition the individual response to a desired behavior. Our behaviors are altered to be desirable or undesirable through reinforcements, punishment and extinction.
Overall, Operant conditioning is a voluntary response that precedes the stimulus and the reinforcement. According to Dr. Komisar Behavioral therapist at Long Island Jewish Hospital, says Operant Condition has been applied in many situations, such as teaching, clinical settings, and advertising, which have been proven successful in clinical trails. B.
Learning is any relatively permanent change in behaviour due to experience (Grivas et al, 1999: 318). Conditioning is the acquisition of specific patterns of behaviour in the presence of well-define stimuli (Termpapers, 2003: 01). Learning is the unconscious association between two stimuli which brings about stimulus substitution: Classical Conditioning, CC, Pavlov and the encoding of consequences ...
F Skinner and Edward Thorndike have developed two famous stream of research in this area. BF Skinner felt that the “term reinforcement was more desirable than the word reward” (Darcy, pg 215).
“Reinforcement is any stimuli that strengthen the desired response” (Darcy, pg 223).
For example, sometimes when you purchase a product, the company offers a rebate on that particular product. That includes receiving money back when the receipt of the purchased product is sent to the company. When you purchase the specific product you are being reinforced to make the actual purchase because of the reward of receiving money back.
There are two types of reinforcements, positive and negative. Positive reinforcers bring pleasant consequence abrupt by adding something pleasant to the environment of the individual. “This increases the probability that the response will occur again” (Darcy, pg 224).
For example to increase customer response you may want to send a trail sample or coupon to entice the customer to the store so as to make a purchase.
On the other hand negative reinforcement is the removal of negative stimuli from the individual surrounding environment. Negative reinforcement is a way to get rid of undesirable behaviors. Think about when you are listening to a radio and you are trying to hear the advertisement that is coming in all fuzzy. Well, if you adjust the setting on the radio to eliminate the static, you will be able to hear the advertisement and possibly want to proceed on to buy the product. In this case, you are removing the unpleasant behavior such as the static from the immediate situation to bring about the pleasantness of the advertisement.
These two aspects of reinforcement both strengthen the individual’s behavior by adding or subtracting necessary praise or barriers. Operant Conditioning as been used in many advertisements such as “Natural Desire” this advertisement is actually a tester for Ce della Marley’s new fragrance for women. There are thousand types of inserts in magazines, ranging from “Afflicted Yard Life” to Teen Magazine. They incorporate all ages, genders, and attitudes. But, this particular Marley advertisement is target to a more sensual and seductive woman who desires that “rush” in everyday life. The object is to receive the tester of the perfume, open the side flap and rub the fragrance slip on your wrists, neck and other body parts.
Introduction to Business Business plays a major role within our society. It is a creative and competitive activity that continuously contributes to the shaping of our society. By satisfying the needs and wants people cannot satisfy themselves, businesses improve the quality of life for people and create a higher standard of living. It is a way for individuals to provide goods and services to ...
If the smell is for you then you have just been subjected to positive reinforcement. One, you liked the smell and two; the advertisement caught your attention because of the desire to feel the “free and sensual” woman in the advertisement. Therefore, the conditioned response to the advertisement and purchasing the product is positive, which has reinforced you to make the purchase. Operant Conditioning can assist the consumer to engage in desirable behavior, with the use of positive and negative reinforcement. As a Marketing Manager the use Of Operant Conditioning is effective. By using this technique the deal with the consumer was seal.
This was done by adding and subtracting the consumers desired or undesired behaviors to entice the consumer to purchase the particular product. The deal with the consumer is final when the consumers purchase the product, while also holding the intention that there is a reward and benefit to be had with the purchase. Reference: Komisar, P. (1991).
Behavioral Research and Therapy, . New York: Worth. Darcy, L. C.
In international encyclopedia of Psychiatry, psychology, psychoanalysis, and neurology (Vol. 7, pp. 210-252).
Kozak, M. N.
Psychology & Behaviorism, . 2 nd Edition. Annual Review of Psychology, 40-43.