16 Personality Factors and College Students The Sixteen Personality Factor Questionnaire (16PF) is an objective test of 16 multidimensional personality attributes arranged in omnibus form. In general, it provides normed references to each of these attributes (the primary scales).
Conceptualized and initially developed by Raymond B. Cattell in 1949 as a broad, multipurpose measure of the source traits of individual personality, the 16PF is appropriate for a wide range of multifaceted populations. It provides a global representation of an individuals coping style, the persons reactive stance to an ever fluid and transactional environment and that individuals ability to perceive accurately certain specific environmental requisites for personal behavior. Because the 16PF is such a multifold measure, it can surely be used as a reliable and valid device for college admissions. To prove the reliability of this test for college admissions, it is essential to understand how the test is structures. A subjects raw score for each of the 16 primary factors is obtained through a weighted procedure where particular responses count as 1 or 2 summatively toward the final raw score.
These weighted or unweighted sums are then compared to the desired normative score tables in the tabular supplement where a particular sten score is identified based on the magnitudinal range of the response and the individual normative demographics of the respondent. This sten score is entered on the profile form and subsequently depicted graphically for ease of interpretation. A personality trait is defined as a distinguishing, relatively enduring way in which one individual differs from another. Through the trait approach, researchers can measure traits objectively and use results to understand social relationships. Cattell (1970, 1989) offered one of the more commonly used and comprehensive personality inventory assessment tools, which ranks individuals as scoring from high to low on different traits His Sixteen Personality Factor (16PF) questionnaire is a standard test that has been factor-analytically derived for a broad application of personality assessments. Personality trait theory stresses the notion that consistent personality traits underlie habitual behaviors, such as the purchase of a specific product or service. Two distinct groups of individuals can be classified with regard to their level of self-monitoring. Those rated high in this trait are characterized as sensitive and alert to social cues.
I had assumed that analyzing my own personality would be an easier task than analyzing the personality of a famous historical person. I made this assumption based on the thought that I knew myself extremely well. However, as I sat down to write this analysis, I drew a blank. I was unsure what to write about my own personality traits and characteristics. As a result of this difficulty, I completed ...
These individuals demonstrate socially desirable or appropriate behavior and use social cues to modify their self-presentation and behavior. They are in effect sensitive to social information and adapt their behavior accordingly. Those with low levels of this trait indicate less sensitivity and alertness to social cues. These individuals tend to be consistent in their behavior and self-presentation no matter what the social situation. They are more interested in their personal-value systems and their own private reality and are centrally concerned with how to remain true to themselves (Musser & Browne, 1991).
Educators have long been looking for a predictor of success for students as they enter college because unsuccessful students waste personal and societal time, as well as resources of the educational institution (Yorke, 1998).
Students who can be identified as at risk for failure early in their academic careers can be targeted for interventions that will increase the likelihood of success. As higher education institutions prepare for increased enrollments, the predictably of student success becomes of paramount importance. Admissions decisions are often based upon a combination of qualitative and quantitative evidence.
INTRODUCTION A. Background of the Study Nowadays, teens can easily listen to music because of the gadgets that are available everywhere. Music is an art form whose medium is sound and silence. Its common elements are pitch, rhythm, dynamics, and the sonic qualities of the timbre and texture. The creation, performance, significance and even the definition of music vary according to culture and ...
Qualitative evidence can include leadership and extracurricular participation in high school, personal interviews, and student portfolios. Quantitative evidence can include standardized tests, high school percentile rank, and high school grade point average. Researchers who have studied student retention have often included quantitative admissions criterion as predictors of student success. Success can be difficult to define based on the individual perspective. In terms of academic success in college, however, there are a number of commonly used measures. The first-semester grade point average (GPA) is a measure of a students immediate performance upon entering the university atmosphere.
The cumulative GPA is a long-term measure of the consistency of performance while in that atmosphere. Certainly other academic outcomes would include performance on a formative professional licensure exam, performance in selected key core courses, engagement in the collegiate experience (i.e. leadership involvement, service learning, etc.), and overall personal satisfaction with the collegiate experience. Many would agree that the ultimate measure of success in college is graduation from an institution leading to employment in a career that provides for a satisfactory level of quality of life. Universities would benefit from the ability to predict academic performance and have used several instruments to accomplish this task. It is the researchers opinion that the predictors of academic success can be grouped into two broad categories, personological variables and situational variables. In terms of personological variables, significant emotional events, socio-economic status, and family expectations clearly influence academic performance. Personality tests have also been shown to have predictive ability when used in correlation with collegiate success factors.
Brown (1994) conducted a study of 124 incoming freshmen at Old Dominion University. Each student was given a battery of cognitive ability instruments as well as The Adjective Checklist, a personality test that can be scored for 37 scales. She concluded that the personalities of the individuals accounted for a great deal of the explainable variance (R=.78, R2 =.60) because the students had been previously screened for cognitive ability in that they all had to pass a rather rigorous admissions policy. Aleamoni and Oboler (1977) studied several factors as predictors of first semester GPA. Among other variables, they found that high school percentile rank (HSPR) was, by far, the single best predictor of success (R=.429, R2=.1841).
The education system in France: (source: European Union) I. Information on Community Law II. Information concerning the national education system III. Useful addresses I. Information on Community Law The fundamental principle of non-discrimination on grounds of nationality between students studying in a foreign country and national students applies as regards admission to an educational or ...
Tross, Harper, Osher and Kneidinger (2000) looked at three personality traits (achievement, conscientiousness, and resiliency), SAT scores and high school GPA in 844 college students as related college GPA and retention rates. They found that only conscientiousness was significant (R=.60, R=.36) in predicting success as defined by first semester GPA and retention rates.
The above literature indicates that the following variable have the ability to serve as predictors of collegiate success: 16 Factors Personality Test, SAT/ACT scores, high school GPA and high school percentile rank (HSPR).
With the I6PF questionnaire flaws can be seen in the way many people complete the statements. Due to the fact that some people do not want to answer a certain way, they alter their answers. This makes their results worthless. Issues of validity and reliability make it hard for this questionnaire to be 100 percent correct. There will always be a few people that answer not to the best of their ability.
There is no doubt, however, that when taken seriously, the 16 Personality Factor test can be of incredible use as a research device and clinical tool. As any standardized test, the 16 Personality Factor test does have its flaws and drawbacks. Some people fear failing tests, they loose confidence once they see forms and fields that have to be filled out. There also can be unserious attitudes to test taking, which will result in subjectivity. However, if used properly and along with other instruments, such as statement of purpose, grade sheets, activities and previous achievements records, and personal interviewing 16 Personality Factors Questionnaire can be a wonderful tool for judging whether a person is a good candidature to become a student. Works cited: Noel Mark Noel,Chad Michaels,Michael G Levas; The relationship of personality traits and self-monitoring behavior to choice of business major. Journal of Education for Business; Washington: Jan/Feb 2003.
It is also a growing industry in all parts of the world starting from kindergarten to the tertiary level. Parents and students today are much more awarded than they used to be few decades ago and realize the significance of a good education in their lives and how a good education from a reputed and well placed university can help them prosper in their professional careers. The education industry ...
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