Pyramids, gold, the Nile, hieroglyphics, gods and goddesses… no matter how much we know about it, we all see one of these things when we picture Egypt. However, this image is not complete without the Pharaoh. Not much in Egypt was. So to be considered “The Last Great Pharaoh of Egypt” is quite an honor, an honor that Ramesses III carries. A ruler in the time of the New Kingdom, he gave Egypt a few more years of glory before it’s decline.
Most people have heard of Ramses e II, who is believed to be Ramesses’ III great-grandfather. There is no solid proof for this, just evidence shown in tombs and on temple walls. We do know for sure though that Ramesses’ immediate predecessor (and father) was Setnakeht. Setnakeht was a relatively unknown and unimportant ruler, and only ruled for a short period of time, his son however is still remembered well today. Not much is known about Ramesses’ III childhood, it’s likely though that he led the “typical” pharaoh’s childhood until he was old enough to have any power, and then later take control. When Ramesses III went into power in 1187 B.
C. E. , that part of the world was having a very difficult time. Anyone who knows Greek history will tell you about how that was the time of the Trojan War.
Even in times where civilizations were isolated compared to today, a war that big will cause disrupt all over the world. The fall of Mycenae was also no laughing matter. It left many people homeless and fleeing for their lives, and almost was the end to several other civilizations. The world as a while was very desperate for food, and Egypt, being a bread basket had all eyes turned to it.
Ramses II Ramses II was the son of Seti and is frequently called the greatest pharaoh as he ruled for a long time and was very strong militarily. He was known as the “Great Ancestor” or “Ramses the Great.” Historical Details: Ramses II became pharaoh in 1279 BC and ruled for 66 years and 2 months. He ruled through 14 sed festivals, more than any other ruler. Sed festivals were held to celebrate ...
A group of people, known today as the Sea People were also on the move. The Sea People gave a blow to the Hittite empire and threatened Egypt many times. Although Shakespeare may disagree, there’s a lot to be said about names, especially those of Pharaohs. Ramesses III had a very common birth name, as most Pharaohs of the 20 th dynasty named their children after Ramses II. Ramesses literally means “Re has created him.” The second part of his birth name (hardly ever used), Heqainunu, means “Ruler of Heliopolis” (an ancient city just north of modern day Cairo).
The throne name of Ramesses III was Usermaatre Meryamun, or ‘Powerful is the Justice of Re, Beloved of Amun.” And like most ancient names, there are many different ways to spell and pronounce them.
Ramesses III started his 31 year (and 41 days) in 1153 B. C. E and had a peaceful rule for a few years before he would be bombarded with problems and wars. He started his rule at Heliopolis, which remained his capital throughout his reign. His hometown, though unsure, is thought to be Tell el Yehudiyeh, the modern Naytahut located just north of Cairo and by the delta of the Nile. The most hard evidence for this is tombs of other people thought to be his family members and temples.
As his reign began, he tried to “settle down” existing problems and unite his nation once again. His father, though he had an uneventful rule, wasn’t the best of Pharaohs, and created some internal problems. Nubia at this time was very peaceful, just a quite trade partner in the south. However, all good things must come to an end… and peace only lasted five years for him. During his fifth year the Libyans seized the opportunity and attacked for the first time since the 19 th Dynasty when Maren ptah was ruling.
The Libyans were accompanied by two other groups of people, the Mshwesh and the Seed. Ramesses handled this situation very well, proving himself for the first time. Anyone who wasn’t killed in the short series of battles was enslaved. The next attackers in Ramesses eighth year of rule are quite a mystery.
Ancient Egypt, civilization lived along the Nile River in northeastern Africa for more than 3,000 years, from about 3300 bc to 30 bc. It was the longest-lived civilization of the ancient world. Geographically, the term "ancient Egypt" indicates the territory where the ancient Egyptians lived in the valley and delta of the Nile. Culturally, it refers to the ways ancient Egyptians spoke, worshiped, ...
Known today as the “Sea People” they were highly feared, but we still don’t really even know where they came from. We known that they were so powerful and fierce that they destroyed the Hittite civilization and threatened the entire region. Egyptian records left us this: ‘The foreign countries conspired in their islands, and the lands were dislodged and scattered in battle together; no land could stand before their arms: the land of the Hittites, Qo de, Carchemish, Arz awa and Cyprus were wasted, and they set up a camp in southern Syria. They desolated its people and made its land as if non-existent. They bore fore before them as they came forward towards Egypt.’ We do know that there is truth in this, as Cyprus had been attacked and declined around the same time period. They completely destroyed the Hittite capital, and the list of other civilizations goes on and on.
These “Sea People” were not to be messed with. We don’t know where exactly they came from, if they were nomadic or if they left their home for another reason. There’s evidence that they came in waves, and in might have been a series of tribes, maybe with a central location unknown to us. All we really know about them is how powerful their army was. The longest hieroglyphic inscription that has been discovered is of Ramesses encounter with these people. He had in inscribed on the outer wall of the Second Pylon, north side, of his mortuary temple at Medinet Habu.
The hieroglyphics that tell this story are the main source to what happened and who these people were. To the north, is a description of the battle itself. The Sea People apparently brought their women, children and all their possessions with them (plus a whole navy) and intended to settle in Egypt. Ramesses rose to the occasion once again, and acted fast saving Egypt. The tactics that he used for the battle are complicated and impressive, everything from archers to a naval fleet (which Egypt wasn’t known for).
In the end it all worked out though (at least for a while).
Only tree years later, Egypt was attacked again by the Libyans, and once again, Ramesses crushed them… killing more than 2, 000 of their soldiers. Not only did they have a victory in protecting Egypt, but gained many treasures during battle. Throughout his reign, Ramesses had to del with minor conflicts, as did most Pharaohs. Most of these are clearly depicted in his tomb.
Approximately 32,500,000 people live in Egypt. Peasant farmers called fellahin make up over 60 percent of the population. But less than 4 percent of Egypt's land is suitable for farming. Before the leaders of the 1952 revolution introduced land reform, less than 2 percent of the landowners owned half of the land available for farming. Most of the fellahin were tenants or owned very tiny farms. A ...
However, there’s also evidence that he “copied” other Pharaoh’s battles and depicted him winning. This was common practice, but leaves us in more of a mystery about what really happened. While Ramesses was a great war king, and had many military feats, he also did many things in times of peace. He made many trade contacts, one of his most famous was a land that Egypt hadn’t had any contact with since Hatshepsut, Punt.
Ramesses is also known for his domestic building project and tree planting project. He also gave huge amounts of money to build temples, and even inspected them later to avoid corruption. His top priority was his mortuary temple at Medinet Habu, which was complete about twelve years into his reign. His tomb is known for all of the hieroglyphics, the biggest collection we have in fact and a huge source of information on Egyptian life, both daily and noble. Not only did he have many great public works, but there were major developments in government.
For many generations Egypt had two viziers, one to rule Upper Egypt, and the other the rule Lower Egypt. For whatever reason, Ramesses combined these jobs and had only one ruling vizier. Besides the fact that temples were given more money, and money was given to build new ones, no major changes in religion occurred. His family life was complicated, and would eventually be the end of him. He had many wives, some of which were Isis, Titi and Tiy. Along with the wives came many sons, including the pharaohs that would immediately follow him, Ramesses IV, V, and VI.
He had more than ten sons total that we know of, and most likely many more than that. Although we know very little about what really might have happened, Tiy, one of his minor wives played a key role in his assassination attempt in order to give her son more power. The plot, which in involved magic failed, but at least 40 people were sentenced and forced to commit suicide because of it. Ramesses III died during the trial for unknown reasons. Despite his shortcomings and strange death, Ramesses III was able to give Egypt one last shining moment of glory before it’s decline. This is something that no other Pharaoh can claim, and that itself is an honor large enough for history to remember..
New Kingdom Egypt was established by the beginning of the 18 th Dynasty, marked by the Expulsion of the Hyksos invaders, a people from the Ancient Near-East who had held power in Egypt for the past century. This amassing of strength by the Egyptians to reclaim their land from a powerful foe, led to a change in perspective for the Egyptian people and most importantly, the way in which the Pharaoh ...